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Henry Hyvernat, D.D.

Professor of Oriental Languages and Archeology, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
ABBAS, YOM-ṬOB BEN JONAH – Mentioned in the responsa of Judah ben Asher (fols. 30 and 35). H. H.
ABSALOM – Biblical Data: Third son of King David, born in Hebron in the early years of that king's reign. His mother, Maachah, was the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur (II Sam. iii. 3; II Sam. xiii. 37; I Chron. iii. 2).Absalom appears...
ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE – To contrast them with plants and minerals, animals are called in Hebrew (living soul): used always collectively in Gen. i. 20, 24; ix. 10; or simply ḥayyah (living): as a rule collectively (Gen. ix. 2 et seq.); rarely as a...
BUFFALO – A name common to different species of Bovidœ. The best known is the Bubalus buffelus, or Bos bubalus, generally called in Eastern countries jamoos or chamoosh, a word of Persian origin, meaning "ram-cow." From India, its native...
CAPER-BERRY – The feminine "abiyyonah" does not express "desire," but "the desiring thing," sc. "soul" [so Ḳimḥi]. The Septuagint, Vulgate, Peshiṭta, and Aquila translate by κάππαρις, "caper-berry," which traditional translation is confirmed...
CATTLE – Term used to denote all domestic animals, the principal possession of nomadic and pastoral peoples.Cattle were very important in the early life of the Hebrews. The story of Abel, who was a "keeper of sheep," and offered unto the...
CHAMELEON – An animal of the genus Chamœleon, the only genus of the tribe Dendrosaura (also Chamœleonida, Rhiptoglossa, Vermilinguia), of the Chamœleontidœ or Chamœleonidœ family, of which it is the type. Some sixty species of the genus are...
CHAMOIS – The rendering of the Hebrew (zemer), both in the A. V. and in the R. V., probably on the authority of Bochart ("Hierozoicon," iii. ch. xxi.). It must, however, be discarded, for the reason that the chamois is exclusively a...
CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANIMALS – Distinction Between "Clean" and "Unclean." —Animals ceremonially pure and fit for food, and such as are not. Biblical Data: The distinction between clean and unclean animals appears first in Gen. vii. 2-3, 8, where it is said...
CONEY – A small herbivorous animal (Hyrax Syriacus or Hyrax Daman) mentioned in the Bible. "Coney" is the traditional rendering of the Hebrew "shafan" ( ), which occurs four times in the O. T. (Lev. xi. 5; Deut. xiv. 7; Ps. civ. 18;...
DRACH, DAVID PAUL – Librarian of the Propaganda in Rome; born at Strasburg March 6, 1791; died in Rome Jan., 1865. Drach received his early education from his father, who was a rabbi. After spending some time in various Talmudic schools, he became...
DROMEDARY – A variety or choice breed of the camel proper, or one-humped camel; much tallerand longer in the leg than the ordinary camel, of a more slender shape, and generally of a very light color. Its speed is considerable, reaching...
EAGLE – The rendering in the English Bible versions of the Hebrew "nesher." The nesher, however, was bald; nested on high rocks; and was gregarious in its habits (Micah i. 16; Job xxxix. 27, 28; Prov. xxx. 17), all of which...
ELEPHANT – A pachydermatous mammal of the family of the Elephantidæ. It is now commonly agreed that the elephant (Elephas indicus) is indirectly mentioned in a passage of the Hebrew Bible. In I Kings x. 22 (II Chron. ix. 21), namely, it is...
FIG AND FIG-TREE – The fig-tree (Ficus Carica) and its fruit are designated in Hebrew by the same word, "te'enah" (Deut. viii. 8; Judges ix. 10; Num. xiii. 23; II Kings xx. 7); the plural, "te'enim," indicating the fruit as distinct from the tree....
FIR – The usual Authoized Version rendering of (once of the North-Palestinian pronunciation). In the Revised Version "cypress" has been adopted in almost every case in the margin. Of the ancient versions the Vulgate almost in variably...
FLAX – The principal species of the natural order Linaceæ which includes more than fifty other species. The culture of flax in Palestine preceded the conquest of that country by the Hebrews (Joshua ii. 6).Some of the processes in its...
FOREST – In the English versions the word "forest" is employed for the rendering of four different Hebrew words: (1) "ya'ar," which occurs more than forty times; (2) "ḥoresh," five times; (3) "ḥoreshah," once; and (4) "pardes," once. The...
FROG – The Hebrew term generally occurs in the plural; twice only in the singular as collective, once with (Ex. viii. 2) and once without (Ps. lxxviii. 45) the article. Frogs are mentioned in the Bible only in connection with the...
GADFLY – Marginal rendering in the Revised Version of the Hebrew "ḳereẓ" (Jer. xlvi. 20), where "destruction" is given in the texts of both English versions. For arguments in favor of the former rendering, now generally adopted, see the...
GOPHER-WOOD – The material of which the ark of Noah was made. The word "gofer" occurs but once in the Bible, viz., in the expression (Gen. vi. 14). A comparison of the ancient versions shows that the word was just as obscure when they were...