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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
ARON, HENRY – French publicist; born in Paris, Nov. 11, 1842; died there Nov. 13, 1885. He was a pupil of the École Normale and obtained a fellowship there in 1865, but soon gave up teaching to join the staff of the "Journal des Débats," and...
ARONIUS, JULIUS – German historian; born Feb. 5, 1861, at Rastenburg, Germany; died June 29, 1893. After completing the gymnasium course, he entered the University of Berlin, where he studied history, philology, and later went to the University...
ARONS, LEO – German physicist and Socialist. Though privat-docent at the University of Berlin he took part in the Socialist movement, and was in consequence suspended from his office by the minister of education, Bosse, April, 1899. Being...
ARONSSOHN, JACOB EZEKIEL – German physician and medical writer; born in 1774; died June 12, 1807; obtained his degree of M.D. in 1800; and subsequently became teacher at the Berlin University. Of his various publications may be mentioned: (1)...
ARONSSOHN, JACQUES LÉON – German physician; born at Metz May 2, 1793; died at Strasburg Sept. 8, 1861. His father, Jacques Aronssohn (died 1845), practised medicine at the garrison of Pont-à-Mousson. Aronssohn went to Strasburg in 1809 to matriculate at...
ARONSTEIN, L. – German chemist; born May 25, 1841, at Telgte, Westphalia; graduated from the University of Göttingen in 1864 with the degree of Ph.D. Two years later he became assistant in the physical department of the University of Leyden,...
ARONSTEIN, PHILIPP – German school-teacher and author; born Dec. 4, 1862, at Halver, province of Westphalia, Prussia. Aronstein received his education at the gymnasium in Soest, the universities of Berlin and Bonn, and the Academy of Münster, whence...
ARTOM, ISAAC – Italian patriot, diplomat, financier, and author; born at Asti, Piedmont, Dec. 31, 1829; died at Rome Jan. 24, 1900, and was buried at Asti. At the age of sixteen he was ready for the university; but the higher schools of...
ARTON, LÉOPOLD ÉMILE – French adventurer; born in Strasburg in 1849; settled in Paris in 1871. He was implicated in distributing among statesmen and politicians the bribes of the Panama Canal Company, which sought to secure the authorization of the...
ASCARELLI, MOSES VITA (JEHIEL) – Physician at Rome; died Dec. 11, 1889. He received his early education at the Talmud Torah in that city, and later studied medicine at the University of Rome. During the cholera epidemic in 1867 he distinguished himself by his...
ASCHER, ANTON – German actor; born at Dresden July 15, 1820; died in Meran April 24, 1885. Trained for the stage by Ludwig Tieck, he made his début in 1838 at Hainichen, Saxony, playing the same year also at Merssen, Bautzen, and Zittau. In...
ASCHER, SAUL – German author and translator; born at Berlin Feb. 8, 1767; died there Dec. 8, 1822. He began his literary career as an advocate of Jewish emancipation; gradually extending his activities to general topics, chiefly historical,...
ASCOLI, GIULIO – Italian mathematician; born in Triest Nov. 20, 1843; died in Pisa. Reared in a city with a large Italian-speaking population, a natural inclination drew young Ascoli to Milan, where, from 1874 until 1879, he taught mathematics...
ASCOLI, GRAZIADIO ISAIAH – First Work. Italian philologist; born July 16, 1829, at Göritz, Austria. His father, who had made a fortune in the manufacture of paper, died while Graziadio was an infant. Graziadio devoted himself at an early age to the study...
ASHER, LEON – German physician; born April 13, 1865, in Leipsic. He is the son of Dr. David Asher, for many years secretary to Chief Rabbi Nathan M. Adler in London. Leon Asher, after graduating from the public school in Leipsic, studied...
ASHKENASY, EUGENE – Botanist; born at Odessa May 5, 1845; died, July 24, 1903. He held the honorary professorship of botany at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. In 1871 he wrote "Beiträge zur Kritik der Darwinischen Theorie." A considerable...
ASHKENAZI, ABRAHAM – Chief rabbi of Palestine ( ), born at Janishar, near Salonica, in 1813; died at Jerusalem Jan. 22, 1880. At the age of fifteen he was taken by his father to Jerusalem, where he studied rabbinical literature in the various...
ASHKENAZI – Government official in the employ of the Ottoman empire; born 1840. He received his early education at the Institution Camondo, and, after filling several subordinate positions, was appointed by Sultan Aziz, in 1869, a member of...
ASHKENAZI, MEÏR, OF KAFFA (CRIMEA) – Envoy of the Tatar khan in the sixteenth century; killed by pirates on a voyage from Gava (near Genoa) to Dakhel (probably Dakhel or Dakleh in the western oasis of Upper Egypt), between the 15th and the 25th day of Tammuz...
ASKANAZY, MAX – German physician; born at Stallupönen, East Prussia, Feb. 24, 1865. He received his education at the gymnasium in Königsberg, Prussia, and at the university in that city, studying medicine at the latter, and graduating in 1890....
ASKANAZY, SELLY – German physician; born Sept. 8, 1866, at Stallupönen, East Prussia. He attended the Kneiphof Gymnasium at Königsberg, Prussia, and later the university in that city, graduating as doctor of medicine in 1892. Joining the staff of...
ASSER, CAREL – Dutch jurist; son of Moses Salomon Asser; born at Amsterdam, Holland, Feb. 15, 1780; died Aug. 3, 1836. He studied law and philology at the Athenæum at Amsterdam. After obtaining a doctor's degree, July 3. 1799, Asser devoted...
ASSER, CAREL – Dutch jurist and scholar; born at The Hague, June 1, 1843; died at Leyden, Dec. 10, 1898. He was a son of Louis Asser, judge of the district court at The Hague, and grandson of Carel Asser, referendary in the Department of...
ASSER, MOSES SALOMON – Dutch jurist; born in Amsterdam Aug., 1754; died there Nov. 4, 1826. Although originally intended for trade, he took up the study of commercial law; and so successful was he in his new career, that on becoming procurator in...
ASSER, TOBIAS MICHAEL CAREL – Dutch jurist; born at Amsterdam April 28, 1838. His father was Carel Daniel Asser (1813-85). His mother was a sister of Godefroi, Dutch minister of Justice.Asser studied jurisprudence at the Athenæum at Amsterdam, and as early...