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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isidore Singer, Ph.D.

MANAGING EDITOR, New York City.

Contributions:
BENEDETTI, SALVATORE DE – Italian scholar; born April 18, 1818, at Novara, a town in Piedmont; died Aug. 4, 1891, at Pisa. In his time the public schools of Italy were closed to Jews, and therefore Benedetti attended the only school of importance in...
BENEDICT, MOSES – German banker and artist; born in 1772 at Stuttgart, Germany; died there July 8, 1852. He was destined for the profession of sculptor. With his brother Seligmann Löb he was sent in 1785 to the Karlsschule in Stuttgart. Later on...
BENEDIKT, EDMUND – Austrian jurist; born at Döbling, near Vienna, Oct. 6, 1851. He studied law at the University of Vienna, and after graduation became the publisher of the "Juristische Blätter." In addition to his editorial labors he wrote:...
BENEDIKT, MORITZ – German journalist, publisher, and editor of the Vienna "Neue Freie Presse"; born at Gnatschitz, Moravia, May 27, 1849. On attaining his majority he chose journalism as a profession, contributing with considerable success to...
BENEDIKT, MORIZ – Austrian neurologist; born at Eisenstadt, Hungary, July 6, 1835. Upon his graduation from the University of Vienna, where he had prepared himself for his professional career under Hyrtl, Brücke, Skoda, Oppolzer, Arlt, and...
BENEDIKT, RUDOLPH – Austrian chemist; born at Döbling July 12, 1852; died in Vienna Feb. 6, 1896. He was educated at the Polytechnic (HighSchool) of Vienna, where in 1872 he was appointed an assistant lecturer of technical chemistry. In 1876 he was...
BENFEY, THEODOR – German Sanskritist and comparative philologist; born at Nörten, Hanover, Jan. 28, 1809; became a convert to Christianity in 1848; died June 26, 1881. His father, who had seven children besides Theodor, was a Jewish merchant...
BENJAMIN II., J. J – Benjamin II.Rumanian traveler; born at Folticheni, Moldavia, in 1818; died at London May 3, 1864. Married young, he engaged in the lumber business, but losing his modest fortune, he gave up commerce. Being of an adventurous...
BENJAMIN, HILLEL – Polish architect of the second half of the eighteenth century; born at Lasko. He was the builder of the synagogue at Lutomierz, which was constructed during the reign of the last king of Poland, Stanislaus August I. Benjamin...
BENJAMIN, SAMUEL – French soldier in the Carlist expedition against Madrid in 1837; distinguished for bravery and remarkable devotion to Boulan de Brie, a lieutenant in the regiment in which he served. When De Brie was mortally wounded Benjamin...
BENLOEW, LOUIS – French philologist; born at Erfurt Nov. 15, 1818; died at Dijon February, 1900. He studied at the universities of Berlin, Leipsic, and Göttingen, and went to France in 1841, where he taught modern languages at Nantes and Bourges...
BENSHEIM, SIMON – Member of the grandducal Oberrat (Upper House) of Baden; born at Mannheim Oct. 14, 1823; died there Oct. 26, 1898. Extremely active in congregational and philanthropic matters, he was annually elected by unanimous vote a member...
BERENDSON, MARTIN – German publisher; born at Hamburg in 1824; died June 24, 1899. He was the head of the well-known bookselling and publishing firm of his native city, "Gebrüder Berendson." Berendson devoted much of his leisure to Jewish communal...
BERENDT, GOTTLIEB MICHAEL – German geologist; born in Berlin Jan. 4, 1836. He studied the science of mining; and in his work, "Die Diluvialablagerungen der Mark Brandenburg, Insbesondere der Umgebung von Potsdam," Berlin, 1863, gave the first geological...
BERENSTEIN, ISSACHAR BAER B. SAMUEL – Dutch rabbi; born in Leeuwarden, Holland, 1808; died in The Hague Dec. 13, 1893. He was the son of Rabbi Samuel b. Berish Berenstein, chief rabbi of Amsterdam, and was a dayyan of that town at the time of his father's death in...
BERENSTEIN, SAMUEL BEN BERISH – Dutch rabbi; born in Hanover about 1767; died in Amsterdam Dec. 21, 1838. He was the descendant of a long line of distinguished rabbis, his father and his grandfather, R. Aryeh Loeb—who was the son of Rabbi Jacob Joshua of...
BERGEL, JOSEPH – Neo-Hebraic writer of the first part of the nineteenth century. He was a private teacher at Prossnitz, Moravia. In 1826 and 1827, he published some articles and poems in the annual "Bikkure ha-'Ittim" (vi. 40, 50; vii. 3, 123,...
BERGEL (BERGL), JOSEPH – Hungarian physician and author; born Sept. 2, 1802, at Prossnitz, died 1885 at Kaposvar. He was well versed in rabbinical and modern Hebrew literature, and attempted to introduce a new meter into Hebrew poetry in a work he...
BERGER, EMILE DE – Austrian oculist and medical author; born at Vienna Aug. 1, 1855. He received his education at the University of Vienna.From 1882 to 1887 he was lecturer at the University of Gratz, and from 1890 to 1896 professor of...
BERGER, ERNST – Austrian painter; brother of the oculist Baron Emile Berger; born at Vienna Jan. 3, 1857; educated at the gymnasium, the commercial high school, and in 1874 at the Academy of Arts of his native town. Though intended by his...
BERGER, OSCAR – German electrotherapist and medical author; born at Münsterberg, Silesia, Nov. 24, 1844; died at Ober-Salzbrunn, Silesia, July 19, 1885. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native town and at the universities of Berlin,...
BERKOVITS, LAJOS – Hungarian violinist; born at Budapest in 1874. Here he passed through the schools and finished his musical education. He was graduated from the National Academy of Music, where his teachers were Jeno Hubay and David Popper. In...
BERKOWITZ, HENRY – American rabbi; born at Pittsburg, Pa., March 18, 1857. He was educated at the Central High School of his native city, at Cornell University, and at the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, O. Berkowitz has held the position of...
BERLIJN, ANTON (ARON WOLF) – Conductor and composer; born at Amsterdam May 21, 1817; died there Jan. 16, 1870. He wrote nine operas, seven ballets, an oratorio ("Moses auf Nebo"), a symphony, a cantata, a mass, several overtures, chamber-music, etc. Of...
BERLIN, RUDOLF – German ophthalmologist; born May 2, 1833, at Friedland, Mecklenburg-Strelitz; died at Rostock Sept. 12, 1897. He received his education at the gymnasium of his native town and at the universities of Göttingen, Würzburg, Berlin,...