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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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S. M. Dubnow,

Odessa, Russia.

Contributions:
ABRAHAM BEN JOSIAH HA-ROFE – A Karaitic scholar and physician, born in Troki, a town near Wilna, in Lithuania, about 1636; died there in 1688. He was one of the leading scholars of his time, and, according to Karaitic tradition, a disciple of Joseph Solomon...
ABRAMOWITSCH, SOLOMON (SHALOM) JACOB – Wanderings. A Hebrew and Judæo-German writer; born at Kopyl, Lithuania, in 1836. He studied Talmud at the ḥeder and bet ha-midrash until the death of his father, which occurred in 1849. As a youth he wandered from town to town,...
BALTA – A town in Russia, situated near the Rumanian and Turkish frontiers. Its Jewish community dates from about the middle of the eighteenth century. When Balta was founded, it was divided into a Polish part, called "Josephgrod,"...
BERDYCHEV – A city in the government of Kiev, Russia; in historical and ethnographical relations part of Volhynia. It has one of the largest Jewish communities in Russia, and is often called the "Jerusalem of Volhynia." It is difficult to...
COUNCIL OF FOUR LANDS – The central body of Jewish autonomy in Poland for nearly two centuries—from the middle of the sixteenth to that of the eighteenth. The great number of the Jewish population of Poland, its importance in the industrial life of the...
EICHENBAUM, JACOB – Russian educator, poet, and mathematician; one of the pioneers of modern education among the Russian Jews; born in Krasnopolie, Galicia, Oct. 12, 1796; died at Kiev Dec. 27, 1861. He showed extraordinary ability in Hebrew and...
FRANK, JACOB, AND THE FRANKISTS – The Frankists were a semi-Christian religious organization which came into being among the Jews of Poland about the middle of the eighteenth century. This organization was the ultimate result of two causes: (1) the Messianic...
ḤASIDIM, ḤASIDISM – asidism is a religious movement which arose among the Polish Jews in the eighteenth century, and which won over nearly half of the Jewish masses. In its literal meaning the word "Ḥasidism" is identical with "pietism" ("Ḥasid" =...