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E. Schwarzfeld, LL.D.

Secretary of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, France.

Contributions:
BALLY, DAVICION – Rumanian patriot; born at Bucharest Jan. 29, 1809; died at Jerusalem May 2, 1844. His great-grandfather, Chelebi Mentesh Bally, banker to the grand vizier of Constantinople, aided Nicolas Mavrocordato to ascend the throne of...
BARASCH, JULIUS – Rumanian author and physician; born at Brody, Galicia, 1815; died at Bucharest, Rumania, March 31, 1863. His early education included Talmudic disciplines; but having been married against his own desire at the age of sixteen,...
BENJAMIN II., J. J – Benjamin II.Rumanian traveler; born at Folticheni, Moldavia, in 1818; died at London May 3, 1864. Married young, he engaged in the lumber business, but losing his modest fortune, he gave up commerce. Being of an adventurous...
BLOOD-MONEY IN RUMANIA – According to the common law of Moldavia and Wallachia, the murder of a person entailed not only the execution of the murderer, but also the imposition upon him, or if he were unknown upon the village nearest to the spot where...
BUCHAREST – Ancient capital of Wallachia, and the present capital of Rumania. The oldest Jewish tombstone is dated 1682; but Jews settled in the city much earlier. In 1573 a Jew, Isaiah b. Joseph, was secretary to Prince Alexander Mircea....
CRAJOVA – Chief town of the district of Dolschi; ancient capital of the Banat of Oltenie, Lower Wallachia. It may be assumed that Jews settled here at a very early period, some, doubtless, under Ladislaus Basarab between 1365 and 1367,...
CRUCEANU, STEFAN – Rumanian author; born at Jassy April 25, 1868. On receiving his bachelor's degree in 1889 he entered the University of Jassy as a student of philosophy, but at the endof a year he went to Paris to study medicine. In April, 1885,...
FONSECA (FONSEQUA), DE – Jewish-Portuguese family of Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, southern France, and America.Abraham de Fonseca: Died at Hamburg July 27, 1671 (according to other authorities May, 1651); ḥakam of the Portuguese community at Glückstadt,...
ISCOVESCU, BARBU (JUDAH) – Rumanian painter; born 1816 at Bucharest; died Oct. 24, 1854, at Constantinople. The son of a house-painter, he served his apprenticeship in that calling under his father, afterward going to Vienna and Paris, where he devoted...
JASSY (Jaschi) – City of Rumania. Jassy contains the oldest and most important Jewish community of Moldavia, of which principality it was formerly the capital. Psantir has found in the old cemetery there stones with inscriptions dating back to...
JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION – Objects. Society founded by Baron de Hirsch Sept., 1891, and incorporated at London under the Companies' Acts of 1862-90, with a capital of £2,000,000, divided into 20,000 non-dividend-drawing shares of £100 each; Baron de...
MIHAILENI – Small town in the district of Dorogoi, Rumania. It was formerly called Vladeni and Tirgu-Nou, and was founded in 1792 by a number of Jews under an agreement with the proprietor of the domain. This agreement was confirmed by a...
MOINESHTI – Small town in Moldavia, district of Bakau. The census of 1820 reported forty-two Jewish taxpayers in the town, who constituted the larger part of the population; they were engaged in the exploitation of petroleum-wells, which...