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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
CLOUD – Biblical Data: The Hebrew equivalents for "cloud" are: (1) "'Anan," (Gen. ix. 13, 14; Ex. xiii., passim), which occurs once in the feminineform "'ananah" (Job iii. 5), and once in the Aramaic form (Dan. vii. 13). (2) "'Ab" is...
DAMA, SON OF NETINA – The name of a non-Israelite held up by Rabbi Eliezer and other rabbis to his brethren as an example of true love and piety toward parents. He lived in Ashkelon, and occupied there a high position, being πατήρ βουλἥς, "head of...
DAMAGE – Money recoverable as amends for a wrong or injury sustained. The simple and clear rule as to the obligation of a person who has caused damage to his fellow man is to give full compensation, and is expressed in the words "He that...
DANCING – Biblical Data: Rhythmical and measured stepping to the accompaniment of music, singing, or the beating of drums. This exercise, generally expressive of joy, is found among all primitive peoples. It was originally incident to...
DEBORAH – 1. Rebekah's nurse, who accompanied Jacob, and died on the road to Beth-el. She was buried under a terebinth ("oak" in A. V. and R. V.), on this account named "Allon-bakut" (terebinth of weeping; Gen.xxxv. 8). This tree appears...
DEMAI – 1. Agricultural produce, the owner of which was not trusted with regard to the correct separation of the tithes. The tribe of Levi, having been excluded from participating in the division of the land, obtained as compensation a...
DEREK EREẒ RABBAH – One of the small treatises ( ) of the Talmud. In the editions of the latter the treatise Derek Ereẓ consists of three divisions: (1) Derek Ereẓ Rabbah (Large Derek Ereẓ); (2) Derek Ereẓ Zuṭa ("Small Derek Ereẓ"); (3) "Pereḳ...
DEREK EREẒ ZUṬA – An uncanonical treatise of the Babylonian Talmud. The name is misleading in more than one respect; the word "zuṭa" (small) would seem to indicate that it is a shorter version of the treatise "Derek Ereẓ Rabbah," which is not the...
DERELICTS – Things that have been abandoned ("res nullius" in the Roman law). The Talmud treats of four kinds of things that have no owner: (1) Seas, rivers, brooks, the desert (which can not be subjected to ownership), and all they...
DIDACHE – A manual of instruction for proselytes, adopted from the Synagogue by early Christianity, and transformed by alteration and amplification into a Church manual. Discovered among a collection of ancient Christian manuscripts in...
DIETARY LAWS – Biblical and rabbinical regulations concerning forbidden food.Vegetable Food. A. The ancient Israelites lived chiefly on vegetable food and fruit, upon which the Bible places no restrictions (Gen. i. 29). With the development of...
DIN – Signifies (1) argument; (2) judgment; (3) laws and rules which form the basis of arguments and judgments; (4) justice, the object ofthe judgment; (5) punishment, the execution of the judgment. The term is generally used in...
DIVORCE – Dissolution of marriage. The origin of the Jewish law of divorce is found in the constitution of the patriarchal family. The fundamental principle of its government was the absolute authority of the oldest male ascendent; hence...
DOG – Term of Contempt. —Biblical Data: The dog referred to in the Bible is the semisavage species seen throughout the East, held in contempt for its fierce, unsympathetic habits, and not yet recognized for his nobler qualities as the...
DOSA – Father of the tannaite Ḥanina b. Dosa, famous for his piety.S. S. W. B.
DOSA – Palestinian amora, probably of the fourth century. The Jerusalem Talmud has preserved two of his halakic decisions, and Midrashic literature several of his haggadic utterances. Among the latter is the assertion that the...
DOSA B. ṬEBET – Palestinian amora of the fourth century, in whose name the following curious sentences on the two most dangerous instincts of man are handed down by the eminent haggadist Huna (Cant. R. vii. 8): "In His world God has created two...
DREAMS – Biblical Data: Dreams have at all times and among all peoples received much attention. In the youth of a nation, as in the youth of an individual, dreams are so vivid that they appear to be hardly distinguishable from reality....
DUKAN – The "platform" upon which (1) the Temple priests stood to pronounce the benediction (Mid. ii. 6), (2) the Levites stood during their singing (hence, also, name for the Levitical service: compare Meg. 3a), and (3) the teacher or...
DUMAH – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 14; I Chron. i. 30). Suḳ ("marKet") Dumah has been found in Dumat al-Jandal in Arabia, called "Jauf" to-day (Yakut, s.v.; Burkhardt, "Travels in Syria," p. 662), and compared with...
DWARF – Bible. —Biblical Data: The rendering in A. V. of (Lev. xxi. 20, literally "thin"), denoting one of the physical disqualifications of priests for the service. In this sense is taken by Targ. Yer. ( ) and Ibn Ezra ad loc. (comp....
EARNEST-MONEY – Part payment of the price by the buyer of a commodity as a guaranty that he will stand by the bargain.Wherever the payment of the whole price secured title to property, the payment of a part of the price did the same. All...
EASEMENT – An incorporeal, right, existing distinct from the ownership of the soil, consisting of a liberty, privilege, or use of another's land without profit or compensation; as, an easement consisting of a right of way, a right to...
EBED-MELECH – Biblical Data: A Cushite officer at the court of King Zedekiah, who interceded in behalf of Jeremiah, and was sent by the king with thirty (Ewald and Duhm, "three") men to draw up the prophet from the pit (A. V. "dungeon") into...
'EDAH ḲEDOSHAH – Two Hebrew appellations signifying respectively "holy congregation" and "sacred college"; the former being peculiar to the Palestinian sources, while the latter is used exclusively in the Babylonian Talmud. They designate a...