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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
IDI – Name of several Babylonian amoraim who flourished from the middle of the second to the middle of the fifth century. In the Talmud "Idi" is sometimes interchanged with "Ada" ( ), according to the variation of pronunciation...
IDI B. ABIN NAGGARA – Babylonian amora of the fourth period (about 350). His father, whose name ("Naggara"="carpenter") probably indicates his occupation, came from Nerash or Nerus ( ), in Babylonia. The son, Idi (or Ada), gave an explanation in the...
IDI B. GERSHOM (ADA B. GERSHON) – Babylonian amora of the tannaitic period (about 150); father of Idi b. Idi (Ḥul. 98a; comp. Yer. Ter. x. 10). There is some connection between Idi b. Gershom and Idi b. Jacob I.; perhaps they were brothers-in-law. Idi quotes Ada...
IDI B. JACOB II – Babylonian amora of the second period (about 250). Idi was a disciple of Johanan. The journey from Idi's home in Babylonia to the yeshibah of Johanan at Tiberias occupied about three months, and two journeys there and back in...
IDIT – Name of an amora who is known only from a passage preserved by Naḥman (Sanh. 38b), the passage being a part of a controversy between Idit and a heretic. The proper reading of the name is "Idi" ( ) and this amora is identical...
IGNORANCE OF THE LAW – Through the institution of Hatra'ah, warning by the witnesses before the crime was committed was made by the Rabbis a prerequisite to the infliction of punishment for all criminal acts (Sanh. 8b). The warning once given, the...
ILLEGITIMACY – The state of being born out of lawful wedlock; in Jewish law, the state of being born of any of the marriages prohibited in the Bible and for which the punishment is excision ("karet"; Yeb. 49a; Maimonides, "Yad," Issure Biah,...
ILLESCOS, JACOB DI – Bible commentator, probably of Italian origin; lived in the fourteenth century. He was the author of "Imre No'am," an allegorical, cabalistic, and grammatical commentary on the Pentateuch, with explanatory notes on the obscure...
IMPRISONMENT – Imprisonment as a punishment for crime is not known in Mosaic law. The few apparent cases mentioned in the Pentateuch (Lev. xxiv. 12; Num. xv. 34) refer in fact to the temporary detention of the criminal until sentence could be...
INCEST – Biblical Data: Marriage or carnal commerce between persons of a close degree of consanguinity. Even in modern times the connotation of "incestuous" is not the same in all countries. Among primitive and barbarous races there is a...
INDEMNITY – That by which a surety who has been compelled to pay the debt of his principal is reimbursed, either by the principal or from other sources. The rabbinic law recognizes the surety's right to reimbursement (B. B. 174a, b), and...
INSANITY – Mental disease. Among the Jews the proportion of insane has been observed to be very large. From statistics collected by Buschan he concludes that they are four to six times more liable to mental disease than are non-Jews....
INTENTION – An intelligent purpose to do a certain act. In criminal cases wrongful intent must accompany the wrongful act in order to make the culprit punishable by law. While in the common law, when any wrongful act has been committed, it...
ISAAC B. ABBA MARI – French codifier; born in Provence about 1122; died after 1193 (in Marseilles ?). Isaac's father, a great rabbinical authority, who wrote commentaries on the Talmud ("'Iṭṭur," i. 17, ed. Warsaw, section "Kinyan"), and responsa...
ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF POSEN – Polish rabbi and author; died in Posen 1685. He was the pupil of R. Jonah Teomim, author of "Ḳiḳayon de-Yonah," and colleague of R. Moses Zacuto; later he became rabbi of Lutzk, Volhynia, whence he went to Grodno. In 1664 he was...
ISAAC BEN ASHER HA-LEVI (RIBA) – Tosafist; lived at Speyer in the eleventh century; son-in-law of Eliakim ben Meshullam and pupil of Rashi. His are the earliest known tosafot, and are mentioned, under the name of "Tosafot Riba," in the "Temim De'im," in the...
ISAAC BEN ELIJAH SHENI (SHANI) – Turkish rabbi; lived at Constantinople in the first half of the sixteenth century. The name "Sheni" is followed by the letters , which Steinschneider ("Cat. Bodl." col. 1155) suggests should be read as , the initials of the...
ISAAC OF EVREUX – French rabbinical scholar and Biblical commentator; flourished in the thirteenth century. His authority was invoked by Mordecai (Giṭ. iv., No. 384; Ber. vi.), and by R. Perez in his glosses on the "Semaḳ" (No. 293). He is...
ISAAC BEN ḤAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN – Italian exegete; lived successively at Bologna, Jesi, Recanati, and Rome, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He was the author of the following works: (1) a commentary on the Song of Songs, on Lamentations, and on the...
ISAAC BEN ḤAYYIM OF VOLOZHIN – Russian Talmudist; born at Volozhin, government of Wilna; died at Ivenitz, government of Minsk, June 16, 1849. Isaac was a distinguished Talmudist, owing to which fact he succeeded his father as headof the yeshibah of Volozhin....
ISAAC BEN ISAAC – French tosafist of the second half of the thirteenth century; mentioned in Tos. Naz. 16b; identical, according to Gross and Zunz, with Isaac of Chinon, whose glosses are found in Shiṭṭah Meḳubbeẓet to Naz. 63a. He is also...
ISAAC (EISAK) BEN JACOB ḤABER – Rabbi at Tikotzyn and Suwalki, Poland; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote: "Bet Yiẓḥaḳ," a ritualistic work, the first part of which bore the title "Sha'ar ha-Ḳabua'," the second, "Sha'ar ha-Sefeḳut"...
ISAAC BEN JACOB HA-LABAN – Tosafist and liturgical poet; flourished at Prague in the twelfth century; the brother of the traveler Pethahiah of Regensburg. He was among the earliest of the tosafists ("ba'ale tosafot yeshanim"), a contemporary of R. Eleazar...
ISAAC (EISAK) BEN JOSHUA BEN ABRAHAM OF PRAGUE – Physician and parnas of Prague in the sixteenth century. He was the author of "'Olat Yiẓḥaḳ" a collection of ritual laws arranged after the Arba' Ṭurim of Jacob ben Asher. They are in the form of 843 problems or riddles, in one...
ISAAC JOSHUA BEN IMMANUEL DE LATTES – Italian Talmudist and publisher: born at Rome at the end of the fifteenth century: died at Ferrara about 1570. He was the grandson of thewell-known physician and astronomer Immanuel Boneto. Isaac occupied, about 1530, the...