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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
FIXTURES – Things fastened to the ground, directly or indirectly. Doubt may arise with regard to them, whether or not they become in law part of the land. This may be a question between the landlord and the tenant, or between the seller...
FLECKELES, ELEAZAR BEN DAVID – Austrian rabbi and author; born in Prague Aug. 26, 1754; died there April 27, 1826. He was the pupil of Moses Cohen Rofe, Meïr Fischels, and Ezekiel Landau. At the age of twenty-four he became rabbi of Kojetein, a small town in...
FLORENTIN, ḤAYYIM SAMUEL – Rabbi of Salonica; lived in the seventeenth century. He was the author of a work entitled "Me'il Shemuel" (Salonica, 1725), containing forty-five responsa and ninety-one analecta on the Talmud. At the end are some notes by his...
FLORENTIN, SAMUEL B. DAVID – Rabbi of Salonica in the eighteenth century. He was a nephew of Ḥayyim Samuel Florentin. He wrote: "Bet ha-Ro'eh," a collection of the ritual laws practised in daily life, with an index and notes on the Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah, Salonica,...
FLORENTIN, SOLOMON B. SAMUEL – Turkish Talmudist; lived at Salonica in the seventeenth century. He wrote "Doresh Mishpaṭ," a collection from the marginal notes of Solomon ibn Ḥassun, Solomon b. Isaac Levi, Daniel Estrumsa, Baruch Angel, and Samuel Florentin...
FLY – A two-winged insect, especially the common house-fly (Musca domestica). It is referred to in Eccl. x. 1: "Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a stinking savor." Since a fly in food is offensive, its...
FOA, ELIEZER NAḤMAN – Italian rabbi and author; died in Reggio after 1641. He was a pupil of R. Moses Isserles, and possessed an extensive knowledge in Talmud and Cabala. He founded at Reggio a society under the title "Ḥebrat ha-'Alubim."...
FOOD – Biblical Data: There are two main divisions of food, vegetable and animal.I. Vegetable Food: As among all the Oriental peoples, and as is the case even to-day among the fellaheen of Syria, vegetable food, and chiefly grain...
FOREIGN ATTACHMENT – In modern law, the seizure of a debtor's property in a jurisdiction within which the debtor himself can not be found, he having absconded, or residing elsewhere. Such a proceeding has grown up in most countries under the...
FORGERY – The act of falsely making or materially altering, with intent to defraud, any writing which, if genuine, might be of legal efficacy or the foundation of legal liability. The Mosaic law, intended mainly for an agricultural...
FORNICATION – Cohabitation between a man, married or unmarried, and an unmarried woman. While the common law speaks of intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman as adultery, followed herein by many American statutes which grant...
FOUNDLING – A deserted child whose parents are unknown. The question as to the status of such a child in the Jewish community was chiefly decided by the condition in which it was found. If there was evidence that its parents had abandoned...
FRANK, MENDEL – Polish rabbi of the first half of the sixteenth century. He was at first rabbi of Posen, and a decision rendered by him there on a question of divorce is mentioned by R. Shaknah of Lublin (see "Ḥelḳat Meḥoḳeḳ" on Eben ha-'Ezer,...
FRÄNKEL, DAVID BEN NAPHTALI – German rabbi; born at Berlin about 1704; died there April 4, 1762. For a time he was rabbi of Dessau, and became chief rabbi of Berlin in 1742. Fränkel exercised a great influence as teacher over Moses Mendelssohn, who followed...
FRÄNKEL, SECKEL ISAAC – German banker; born at Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Jan. 14, 1765; died at Hamburg June 4, 1835.He acquired by private study not only a high degree of general culture, but also a thorough knowledge of nine languages, ancient...
FRANKFURT, AKIBA B. JACOB – German preacher and author; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main 1597. He was the son-in-law of R. Simeon Guenzburg of Frankfort, with whose congregation he was associated as preacher, and by whose name he came to be known. Frankfurt...
FRANKFURTER, MOSES BEN SIMON – Dayyan and printer of Amsterdam; born 1672; died 1762. It appears from his epitaph (Mælder, "Jets over de Bergraafplaatsen," p. 15) that Frankfurter assumed in his old age the name of "Aaron." In 1720 he established a...
FRANKFURTER, SIMON BEN ISRAEL – Dutch rabbinical scholar; father of Moses Frank, furter; born at Schwerin, Germany; died at Amsterdam Dec. 9, 1712. He was the author of a work in two parts, containing the rites and prayers for the use of the sick and the...
FRAUD AND MISTAKE – Where in a transaction one of the parties loses by the fraud, i.e., the misrepresentation, of the other, or by his suppression of the truth, the law gives relief either by rescinding the contract or by awarding damages. In some...
FREUND, SAMUEL BEN ISSACHAR BÄR – Bohemian Talmudist; born at Tuschkau Dec., 1794; died at Prague June 18, 1881. After studying under Eleazar of Triesch and Baruch Fränkel of Leipnik he went to the yeshibah at Prague, where he studied under Bezalel Ronsperg...
FULD, AARON B. MOSES – German Talmudist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Dec. 2, 1790; died there Dec. 2, 1847. Being both a man of means and very retiring, he refused to accept the office of rabbi, and referred to the local rabbi any halakic questions...
FUNERAL RITES – Ceremonies attending the burial of the dead. After the body had been cleansed ("ṭohorah") and placed on the bier (see Burial), the funeral procession began, with the accompaniment of trumpets (Ket. 17a; M. Ḳ. 27b), and of dirges...
FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD – Biblical Data: In the East the house is not as important as in northern countries, since the climate permits an outdoor life in the widest sense of the term. The house is used chiefly as a shelter for the night and for sleeping,...
GABRIEL – With Michael, Gabriel is mentioned by name in the Book of Daniel, where he explains to Daniel his visions (Dan. viii. 16-26, ix. 21-27). He appears to Zacharias, and announces to Mary that she is about to have a son whose name...
GADARA – Biblical Data: A Hellenistic city, situated southeast of the Sea of Gennesaret. It was rebuilt by Pompey, and afterward given to Herod the Great. After his death it became a free city under Roman sovereignty (Josephus, "Ant."...