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Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D.

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York City.

Contributions:
ḤAYYIM B. SOLOMON – Russo-Polish preacher; born at Wilna; died there Dec., 1804 (1794?), at an advanced age. His father, R. Solomon b. Ḥayyim, who died in 1766, was dayyan and preacher at Wilna. Ḥayyim was a friend of Elijah Gaon of Wilna and of...
ḤAYYIM BEN TOBIAH – Russian rabbi; lived in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He was among the pupils of Elijah of Wilna, and settled in Safed. In a letter from Safed, dated 1810, he exhorts the Jews of Russia to contribute to the assistance...
ḤAYYIM BEN ZEBULON JACOB PERLMUTTER – Rabbi of Ostropol, Russia, in the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Elef Omer," a collection of sayings beginning with "aleph," and based on the "Beḥinat 'Olam" of Jedaiah Bedersi (Grodno, 1795), and "Shirah le-Ḥayyim,"...
ḤAYYUT, MENAHEM (MANESH, MANUS, MANISH, MANNUSCH) B. ISAAC – Polish rabbi; died at Wilna about May, 1636. He was the son of R. Isaac b. Abraham Ḥayyut, a descendant of a pious Provençal family; his father went to Prague in 1584 (see Gans, "Ẓemaḥ Dawid," sub anno). It seems that in his...
ḤAZAḲ, JACOB RAPHAEL HEZEKIAH – Italian rabbi of the eighteenth century; born 1689; died at Padua 1782 (Ab 16). He was a pupil of Mordecai Basan of Verona, whence he went to Padua, where he studied with Moses Ḥayyim Luzzatto. He succeeded Menahem Modena as...
ḤAZḲUNI, ABRAHAM BEN HEZEKIAH – Galician Talmudist and cabalist; born at Cracow in 1627; died at Tripoli, Syria. He was a disciple of Yom-Ṭob Lipman Heller, and the author of the following works: "Zot Ḥuḳḳat ha-Torah," an abridgment of Isaac Luria's "Sefer...
HEALTH LAWS – The preservation of physical well-being is looked upon in Judaism as a religious command. "And live through them, but not die through them" (Yoma 85b, based on Lev. xviii. 5), was the principle applied to all the laws of the...
ḤEFEẒ B. YAẒLIAḤ – Halakist; lived toward the end of the tenth century. Rapoport assumes him to have beena Palestinian, but it is more probable that he lived in Kairwan. He was the author of a work, now lost, in which, as its name "Sefer...
HEFḲER – Ownerless property, rendered so either by the formal renunciation of the owner, or by an act of the court (Giṭ. 36b), or by the death of a proselyte who has left no Jewish heirs (B. B. 149a; Maimonides, "Yad," Zekiyyah, i. 6)....
ḤIDDUSHIM – Technical name of a certain class of commentaries, consisting of a number of single, "new" remarks, additions, and explanations in connection with a text and its earlier commentaries. The ḥiddushim commentaries differ from the...
ḤIDḲA – Tanna of the middle of the second century. He is quoted only in the Baraita, and is best known for the halakah (Shab. 117b) fixing the number of meals on the Sabbath as four. There is also an interesting haggadic saying by him....
HILLEL – Doctor of the Law at Jerusalem in the time of King Herod; founder of the school called after him, and ancestor of the patriarchs who stood at the head of Palestinian Judaism till about the fifth century of the common era. Hillel...
HILLEL OF ERFURT – Talmudic authority; lived at Erfurt in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; a contemporary of Shalom of Neustadt, and a pupil of Meïr ben Baruch Faleri. According to A. Brüll, Hillel is identical with one "Hiller" who figures...
HILLEL BEN SAMUEL – Italian physician, philosopher, and Talmudist; born about 1220; died about 1295. He was the grandson of the Talmudic scholar Eleazar ben Samuel of Verona. He spent his youth at Barcelona, where he studied the Talmud and natural...
HIRAM, HURAM – 1.—Biblical Data: King of Tyre in the time of David and Solomon. After David had conquered Jerusalem, Hiram sent him cedar-wood and carpenters and masons so that he might build a house (II Sam. v. 11; I Chron. xiv. 1). Hiram was...
HIRING AND LETTING – Hiring is a transaction by which parties, for a compensation, contract for a definite period for (a) the use of property or (b) personal service.I. The Mishnah (B. M. 93a) distinguishes four kinds of bailees: (1) the gratuitous...
HIRSCHENSOHN, ISAAC M. – Jerusalem Talmudist; bibliophile; born at Pinsk, in the government of Minsk, Russia, in 1844. As a boy of three he accompanied his father, Jacob Mordecai Hirschensohn, to Jerusalem, and from him he received instruction in the...
ḤIYYA BAR ABBA – Palestinian amora of priestly descent; flourished at the end of the third century. In the Palestinian Talmud he is also called Ḥiyya bar Ba or Ḥiyya bar Wa ( ; Yer. Ber. iii. 6a, iv. 7d); and in both Talmuds he is frequently...
HOLY DAYS – Biblical Data and Critical View. See Festivals.—In Talmudic Law: Upon the six holy days in the Jewish calendar—the first and seventh days of Passover, the first and eighth days of Sukkot (Tabernacles), the day of Shebu'ot...
HOMICIDE – Biblical Data: That bloodshed should be punished with bloodshed was, according to Scripture, proclaimed to Noah and his family: "Surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and...
HORWITZ, ARYEH LÖB BEN ẒEBI HALEVI – Lithuanian Talmudist of the seventeenth century. After having been "rosh yeshibah" in several German towns Horwitz was called in a similar capacity to the yeshibah of Minsk while Jehiel Heilprin was chief rabbi there. Horwitz...
HOSPITALITY – Biblical Data: The "ger," the sojourner who lived with a Hebrew family or clan, was assured by the Biblical law not only of protection against oppression (Ex. xxiii. 9) and deceit (Lev. xix. 33), but also of love from the...
ḤULTHA – One of the seven seas which, according to the Talmudists, surround Palestine (B. B. 74b; Yer. Ket. xii. 3; Kil. ix. 5; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxiv.). In the enumeration of the seven seas in the Yalḳuṭ to Ps. xxiv., the "Sea of Acre"...
ḤUSHIEL BEN ELHANAN – President of the bet ha-midrash at Kairwan toward the end of the tenth century. He was born probably in Italy. According to Abraham ibn Daud, he was one of the four scholars who were captured by Ibn Rumaḥis, an Arab admiral,...
IDENTITY, PROOF OF – In criminal cases the witnesses were required to be certain of the identity both of the accused and of the victim, as well as of the nationality to which the victim belonged (Sanh. 40b). When the accused succeeded in escaping...