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Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D.

Professor, Jews' College, London, England.

Contributions:
ABBAS – This name does not appear in the long lists of Jewish names in pre-Islamic Arabia, nor does it occur among the Jews in general until the twelfth century. This shows that there is not much evidence to support the theory that the...
ABBAS, JOSEPH – Copyist of "MS. Kauffmann," No. 45; lived at the end of the seventeenth century.H. Hir.
ABBAS, JUDAH IBN, OF FEZ – A poet, and author of the piyyuṭ "Et Sha'are Raẓon." He was the first Jew known by the name of Abbas; died at Mosulin 1163. His Arabic name was Abu al-Baga ibn Abbas al-Maghribi. Al-Ḥarizi (Taḥkemoni, Mak. iii.) states that...
ABBAS, JUDAH B. SAMUEL BEN – A Spaniard of the thirteenth century. This form of his name is authenticated in the headings of his two works in "MS. Loewe," viii.; namely, (a) "Minḥat Yehudah," a fragment of two leaves only, also styled "Meḳor Ḥayyim" (Source...
ABBAS, MOSES – A name borne by several persons of whom the following three are mentioned in Zunz ("Literaturgesch." p. 342): 1. Moses Abbas flourished about 1400 and carried on a correspondence with the Provençal poet Solomon Bonfed, who...
ABBAS, SAMUEL ABU NAṢR IBN – A son of Judah ibn Abbas of Fez; lived in the twelfth century. Joseph Sambari and the "Yuḥasin" call him Samuel ben Azariah ("Rev. Ét. Juives," iv. 188, v. 52), which Steinschneider believes to be a mistake originating in his...
ABBASSID CALIFS – The position of the Jews during the five centuries of the domination of the Abbassid Califs (750-1258) differed from that under their predecessors, the Ommiads, as the Abassids were troubled by no fears that Jewish influence...
ABD-AL-MALIK – Ommiad calif who ruled at Damascus 685 to 705, and who, unlike his predecessors, was not very religious, but showed a certain tolerance toward the Jews, who hitherto had been roughly handled. Abd-al-Malik, indeed, employed as...
ABDALLAH – As a Jewish name the Arabic equivalent of the Hebrew Obadiah and similar names. Its first appearance among the Jews was not due to religious motives. The name Abdallah was common in Arabic before the rise of Islam, and if it be...
ABDALLAH IBN SABA – A Jew of Yemen, Arabia, of the seventh century, who settled in Medina and embraced Islam. Having adversely criticized Calif Othman's administration, he was banished from the town. Thence he went to Egypt, where he founded an...
ABDALLAH IBN SALAM – Jewish convert to Islam in the time of Mohammed; died 663. According to the Moslems, he was one of the most important Jewish personages in the history of Mohammed's career at Medina, owing to the fact that he was converted to...
ABDALLAH IBN SAURA – One of those whom Moslem traditionists number among Mohammed's opponents in Medina. He was the rabbi of the Banu Tha'laba ibn Fityaun, and, according to several traditions, one of the most learned of Medinian rabbis. Whenever...
ABDALLAH IBN UBAIY – A chief of the Arab tribe Banu al-Khazraj at Medina and a powerful opponent of Mohammed, who had undermined Abdallah's influence in that city. He was the head of the party that Mohammed called "Hanifa." Being an ally of the Banu...
ABU ABDALLAH MOHAMMED ALNASIR – Almohade sultan; ruler of Morocco and southern Spain at the beginning of the thirteenth century. The rule of the Almohade sultans necessarily proved oppressive to the Jews under their sway. They had to choose between conversion...
ABU ISḤAḲ IBRAHIM IBN SAHL AL-ISRAILI OF SEVILLE – Spanish poet of the thirteenth century; died at sea in 1259 or 1260. Under the pressure of the Almohade rule he embraced the Mohammedan faith, but it was believed in Spain that he recanted before he died. There exist three...
ALMOHADES – Forced Conversion to Islam. Almemar of Ashkenazic Synagogue, Jerusalem.(From a photograph by the American Colony, Jerusalem.)A Moorish dynasty in north-western Africa and in Spain during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries....
ALMORAVIDES (AL-MURABATIN) – A Moorish dynasty in northwestern Africa and in Spain in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The rise of this dynasty marked a new epoch; for the first time non-Arab rulers occupied a Moslem throne. Yusuf ibn Tashfin, the...
AL-RABI IBN ABU AL-ḤUḲAIḲ – Jewish poet of the Banu al-Nadhir in Medina, who flourished shortly before the Hegira (622). His family was in possession of the fort Al-Kammus, situated near Khaibar. Like most of the Medina Jews, he took part in the quarrels...
AMRAM BEN ISAAC IBN SHALBIB – Ambassador of Alfonso VI., of Leon and Castile, in the eleventh century. The position occupied by the Jews in Christian Spain toward the end of the eleventh century may be gathered from a statement made by Alfonso VI. in the...
ARABIA – Peninsula lying between the mainlands of Africa and Asia. It is separated from Africa on the south by the Red Sea and on the north by the Sinaitic peninsula and the strip of land which in modern times has been cut through for...
ARABIC LITERATURE OF THE JEWS – From the time that the Arabs commenced to develop a culture of their own, Jews lived among them and spoke their language. Gradually they also employed the latter in the pursuit of their studies, so that Jewish literature in...
ARABIC POETRY – Pre-Islamic Poetry. The poetic literature of the Arab Jews, to judge from the specimens handed down, must be about as old as Arabic Poetry in general, and in the main is of the same form and stamp. Two epochs may be...
ASAD – One of the two Arabian-Jewish rabbis that are said to have instructed the Tobba' Abu Karibah (king of Yemen) in the tenets of the Jewish religion. The name of the other was Ka'b; and both belonged to the tribe of the Banu...
ASMA – Arab poetess, contemporary with Mohammed; daughter of Marwan; was married to an Arab of the tribe of the Banu Ḥatmah. After the murder of the Jewish poet Abu 'Afak, who, in spite of his great age, had instigated the members of...
AUS OF ḲURAIẒA – A poet belonging to the Jewish tribe of Ḳuraiẓa in Medina. When this tribe was besieged by Mohammed, the wife of Aus saved her life by embracing Islam and summoned her husband to do likewise. He refused to follow her example,...