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Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D.

Professor, Jews' College, London, England.

Contributions:
AZANḲOṬ (V02p361003.jpg), SAADIA B. LEVI – Orientalist of Morocco; lived in Holland in the first half of the seventeenth century. He was teacher of Jewish literature to Hottinger. There exists a versified paraphrase of Esther by him, which was printed under the title...
BANU AUS – An Arab tribe that came to Medina together with the Banu Khazraj (about 300), and settled there among the Jewish inhabitants of the place. For some time they lived under Jewish protection and intermarried with them; but,...
BANU BAḤDAL – A Jewish tribe in Medina which dwelt with the Banu Ḳuraiẓa. There is some uncertainty as to the correctness of the name, as the sources give also the names "Ḥadal" and "Ḥandal."G. H. Hir.
BANU ḲAINUḲA'A – A Jewish tribe in north Arabia, apparently the first Jews that settled at Medina, and the most powerful of all the Jewish tribes of the peninsula before Islam. They formed a gild of goldsmiths. They had also a market-place,...
BANU ḲURAIẓA – One of the Jewish tribes in Medina that, like the Banu al-Naḍir, seem to have consisted chiefly of descendants of Aaron. They inhabited the villages Maḥzūr, Bir Abba, and Buath on the eastern side of Medina; and also held...
BANU AL-NAḌIR – A Jewish tribe in Medina. It appears to have been chiefly composed of priestly families, as this, together with the Banu Ḳuraiẓa, was styled "Alkahinan" (The Two Priests). Their habitations were situated in the northern environs...
CALIFS – 1. The attitude of the first Mohammedan rulers toward their Jewish subjects was as much regulated by circumstances as had been that of Mohammed himself. The latter, having subdued the Jewish tribes of Arabia and located them in...
DIETARY LAWS IN ISLAM – The Mohammedan dietary laws are neither as rigorous nor as numerous as in Judaism. They were not introduced into the religious code until the Medinian period of Mohammed's career. He probably found it unwise to force dietary...
EVE – Biblical Data: The wife of Adam. According to Gen. iii. 20, Eve was so called because she was "the mother of all living" (R. V., margin, "Life" or "Living"). On the ground that it was not "good for man to be alone" God resolved...
FASTING AND FAST-DAYS – Fasting is usually defined as a withholding of all natural food from the body for a determined period voluntarily appointed for moral or religious ends. This institution has found wide acceptance in all religious systems,...
FLOOD, THE – Biblical Data (Gen. vi. 9-ix. 17): When God on account of man's wickedness resolved to destroy by a flood all mankind and all the animal world, only Noah and his family and two (or seven) pairs of every living species were...
HAGAR – Biblical Data: Egyptian handmaid of Sarah, and mother of Ishmael. According to one narrative, Sarah, having no children, requested Abraham to take Hagar as concubine, so that she might adopt her children (comp. Gen. xxx. 3,...
ISHMAEL – Biblical Data: Eldest son of Abraham by his concubine Hagar; born when Abraham was eighty-six years of age (Gen. xvi. 15, 16). God promised Abraham that His blessing should be upon Ishmael, who, He foretold, would beget twelve...
JOKTAN – Biblical Data: Younger son of Eber and progenitor of thirteen Arabic tribes (Gen. x. 25-29; I Chron. i. 19-23), many of which—as Hazarmaveth, Shebah, Ophir, and Havilah—have been identified. The name seems to mean "the younger"...
KA'B AL-AḤBAR – One of the most prominent fathers of Moslem tradition, and one of those who introduced into this branch of Arab literature the method as well as many details of the Jewish Haggadah; died 32 or 35 a.h. (652 or 655 C.E.). Of his...
KA'B AL-ASHRAF – Jewish poet of Medina and an implacable enemy of Mohammed. His father was an Arab of the family of Nabhan (a branch of the tribe of Ṭayy), but his mother was a Jewess of the Banu al-Naḍir. His father having died early, Ka'b was...
KINANAH – Opponent of Mohammed; son of the poet Al-Rabi' ibn Abu al-Ḥuḳaiḳ, who flourished at Medina in the seventh century, prior to the appearance of Mohammed at that town. He had two brothers—Al-Rabi' and Sallam; all three were...
LOEWE, LOUIS – English Orientalist and theologian; born at Zülz, Prussian Silesia, 1809; died in London 1888. He was educated at the yeshibot of Lissa, Nikolsburg, Presburg, and at the University of Berlin. Stopping at Hamburg on his way to...