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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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William Milwitzky,

Cambridge, Mass.

Contributions:
AARON BEN SAMUEL – A simple farmer of Hergershausen (Hessen), who was the first person in Germany to attempt, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, to bring about the use of the vernacular in lieu of the Hebrew in the daily prayers. His...
ABBAS (ABAS), AARON – Editor and printer at Amsterdam, at the beginning of the eighteenth century. He was the publisher of two works: (1) Aaron Peraḥyah's responsa, known under the name of "Peraḥ Maṭṭeh Aharon" (Amsterdam, 1703), the title-page of...
ABBAS (ABAS), RAPHAEL BEN JOSHUA – Printer and editor at Amsterdam; contemporary, and undoubtedly a relative, of Aaron Abbas. He supplemented the work of Aaron Abbas by publishing the other book of Aaron Peraḥyah, "Pirḳe Kehunah" (Amsterdam, 1709). He is probably...
ABBAS (ABAS, ABATZ), SAMUEL B. ISAAC – Rabbi in the latter half of the seventeenth century at Amsterdam, where his death occurred about 1693. He translated into Portuguese, from the Hebrew version of Ibn Tibbon, Baḥya's "Ḥobot ha-Lebabot" (Amsterdam, 1670), which...
ABDON, MOSES BEN REUBEN – Rabbi at Rome in 1543, and a member of the communal board of administrators (stewards of the ghetto) up to the year 1564. In 1558 he, with other prominent Jews of Rome, guaranteed to refund to Elijah Corcos the sum of 1,000...
ABENHEIM, JOSEPH – Violinist and orchestra leader; born at Worms in 1804; died Jan. 18, 1891, at Stuttgart. He received his first musical instruction from Schlösser, and in his early youth joined an orchestra at Mannheim. In 1825 he became a...
ABRAHAM OF BEJA – A learned Jew who lived in Alemtejo, Portugal, during the latter half of the fifteenth century. Being an extensive traveler, he knew many languages, and for that reason King John II. ordered him to accompany Joseph Zapateiro of...
ABRAHAM DE MEYRARGUES – A physician who lived in Marseilles, France, during the first quarter of the fifteenth century. He is mentioned in commercial and official documents of that town for the years 1405-13.Bibliography: Barthélemy, Les Médecins à...
ABRAHAM B. MOSES COHEN – A learned rabbi, probably of Spanish origin; lived in Italy during the first half of the sixteenth century; died about 1550. The data given by writers who mention him are conflicting. The earlier bibliographers, Bartolocci...
ABU ISḤAḲ AL-ELVIRI – Mohammedan poet; lived in Spain toward the middle of the eleventh century. In one of his poems he attacked Jews in general, and in particular Joseph ibn Nagrela, whom Badis, king of the Berbers, had appointed vizier. Abu Isḥaḳ's...
ACOSTA, DUARTE NUÑES D' – Merchant at Hamburg during the first half of the seventeenth century; descendant of a prominent Marano family from Portugal. When, about 1640, King John IV. of Portugal established his agency at Hamburg, he made Acosta the first...
ACOSTA, LUIS D' – Marano of Villa-Flor, Portugal; born in 1587. At the age of forty-five, he was condemned to the galleys because he had been secretly following the law of Moses.Bibliography: Kayserling, Sephardim, p. 203.W. M.
ADELKIND – A prænomen; also a family name among the Jews. As the former it is found in a list of martyrs in Nuremberg in the year 1298, and also occurs in a similar list for Weissensee of the year 1303. As a family name it is first met...
ADELKIND – A prænomen; also a family name among the Jews. As the former it is found in a list of martyrs in Nuremberg in the year 1298, and also occurs in a similar list for Weissensee of the year 1303. As a family name it is first met...
ADELKIND – A prænomen; also a family name among the Jews. As the former it is found in a list of martyrs in Nuremberg in the year 1298, and also occurs in a similar list for Weissensee of the year 1303. As a family name it is first met...
AGUILAR (AVELAR), DAVID UZZIEL D' – Friend and contemporary of De Barrios, and praised by the latter in the "Relacion de los Poetas." He is known for his translation into Spanish of the works of Philo. The manuscript of this translation seems to be...
AIX – A town in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, France, the Aquæ Sextiæ of the Romans, and for a short period the capital of Provence. It is variously transcribed in Hebrew, and is sometimes translated in Hebrew literature by "'Ir...
ALASHKAR – A Spanish-Jewish family whose name was probably derived from an Arabic word meaning "red."The first member of the Alashkar family whose name has been handed down is Samuel, the physician, who lived at Seville toward the middle...
ALATRINI – Name of a distinguished Jewish family in Italy, derived from the name of the town Alatri. It has been often transcribed as Alterini and Aletrini. Alatrino and Degli Alatrini are other forms often occurring.The following are the...
ALBA, JACOB DI – Italian rabbi; lived at the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century. He was rabbi in Florence, and author of homilies on the Pentateuch, entitled "Toledot Ya'aḲob" (Generations of Jacob), Venice,...
ALEXANDRA – Daughter of Hyrcanus II., and wife of Alexander, son of Aristobulus II. She was one of the strongest and shrewdest supporters of the Hasmoneans at the court of Herod. When Hyrcanus was humiliated by Herod, on the occasion of the...
ALITYROS (ALITURUS) – Actor, of Jewish birth, at the court of Nero. Through him Josephus became acquainted with the empress Poppæa—whose special favorite the actor always had been—and obtained the pardon for those priests whom Felix, the procurator...
ALJAMA – Separate Jurisdiction. A Spanish term of Arabian origin used in old official documents to designate the self-governing communities of Moors and Jews living under Spanish rule. The Jewish communities of Spain, owing to their...
ALKABIZI, ABRAHAM – Editor at Constantinople during the first quarter of the sixteenth century. In 1516 he, together with Judah Sason and Joseph Hamon, published the "Toledot Adam waḤawwah" of Jeroham b. Meshullam.Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat....
ALKALAI, MOSES BEN DAVID – Judæo-Spanish translator, and writer of Hebrew textbooks; lived in Turkey in the nineteenth century. With his father David, he translated Solomon ibn Verga's "Shebeṭ Yehudah" from Hebrew into Judæo-Spanish (Belgrade, 1859). He...