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H. G. Enelow, D.D.

Rabbi, Congregation Adas Israel, Louisville, Ky.

Contributions:
ANACLETUS II. (PIETRO PIERLEONI) – Antipope to Innocent II. from 1130 to 1138. By reason of his Jewish descent, which prompted Voltaire to call him ironically "the Jewish Pope," Anacletus had to face a great deal of opposition and calumny.An ancestor of...
ANANEL (HANANEEL) DI FOLIGNO – Baptized Jew; lived at the middle of the sixteenth century. Joseph ha-Kohen reports in his "'Emeḳ ha-Baka" that Ananel was the leader of a triumvirate of apostates, who in 1553, appeared before Pope Julius III. with a sharp...
ANANIAS OF ADIABENE – A Jewish merchant, probably of Hellenic origin, who, in the opening years of the common era, was prominent at the court of Abennerig ( ), king of Charax-Spasini (Charakene, Mesene). He was a zealous propagandist of Judaism among...
ANATOLIO, JACOB BEN ABBA MARI BEN SIMSON – Invited to Naples by Frederick II. Hebrew translator of Arabic scientific literature; flourished about 1194-1256 (see "Journal Asiatique," xiv. 34). Anatolio, as he is frequently briefly designated, certainly was of southern...
ANDREAS – A legendary Jewish pope. According to an old Spanish document discovered among some penitential liturgies by Eliezer Ashkenazi, the editor of "Ṭa'am Zeḳenim" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1854), Andreas was a Jew who, upon becoming a...
ANNAS – Son of Sethi, or Seth (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 2, § 1), a Jewish high priest. He was appointed to the office by Quirinus, governor of Syria, to succeed Joazar. When in his thirty-seventh year, and after having held his position...
ANSCHEL – Rabbi at Cracow; flourished in the first half of the sixteenth century. He was the author of "Mirkebet ha-Mishneh" (The Second Chariot), a Judæo-German Biblical concordance, preceded by a lengthy introduction. The volume—now...
ANSCHELM – Chief rabbi of several German provinces. He was appointed to the office of chief rabbi in the year 1435 by Conrad of Weinsberg, hereditary chamberlain and plenipotentiary representative in this particular matter of the Holy...
ANTIBI – Chief rabbi at Aleppo; died March 13, 1858. His book of responsa, "Ohel Yesharim" (The Tent of the Righteous), arranged according to the four Ṭurim (or legal code of Jacob ben Asher), was published at Leghorn in...
APELLES OF ASCALON – Counselor and companion of the emperor Caligula (37-41). After a career of debauchery he went on the stage and became a tragic actor (Philo, "De Legatione ad Cajum," xxx.). Apelles was imbued with a deep-seated hatred of the...
APOLLONIUS – Greek rhetorician and anti-Jewish writer; flourishedin the first century B.C. He is usually, but not always, designated by the name of his father, Molon. He was called by his patronymic mainly to distinguish him from his...
APULIA – Early Settlement of Jews. A district of southern Italy, the limits of which have varied. It is usually regarded as the region bounded by the Frentani on the north, Samnium on the west, Calabria and Lucania on the south, and the...
ARANDA, PEDRO DE – Bishop of Calahorra and president of the council of Castile in the latter part of the fifteenth century; was a victim of the Marano persecutions. His father, Gonzalo Alonzo, who was one of the Jews that embraced Christianity in...
ARIAS, JOSEPH ẒEMAḤ (SAMEH) – Marano litterateur; flourished in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He belonged to the literary coterie of Joseph Penso, the dramatist, and held a high commission in the Spanish army at Brussels.He attained the rank of...
ARISTOBULUS – Youngest brother of Agrippa I.; son of Herod's son Aristobulus; flourished during the first half of the first century. He was left an infant, together with his two brothers, Agrippa and Herod, when his father was executed (7...
ARISTOBULUS – Son of Herod the Great and Mariamne the Hasmonean; born about 35 B.C.; died 7 B.C. Both he and his elder brother Alexander, by reason of their Hasmonean origin, were educated by Herod as successors to his throne; and for that...
ARNOLD OF CÎTEAUX – Cistercian monk, who, with the sanction of Pope Innocent III. (1198-1216), incited a crusade against the Albigenses and Jews of southern France, and occasioned the attack of Simon de Montfort on Viscount Raymund Roger. The...
AUGUSTUS – The first Roman emperor that bore the honorary title of "Augustus"; born Sept. 23, 63 B.C.; died at Nola, Campania, Aug. 19, 14 C.E. He was the son of Caius Octavius. In his attitude toward the Jews he continued the friendly...
BADḤAN – A merrymaker, professional jester, whose business it is to entertain the guests at a marriage-feast with drollery, riddles, and anecdotes. Whether they existed in Talmudic times is not certain. Two men are reported to have...
BARUCH – A Jewish pioneer settler in Spain, whom the tradition of the Ibn Albaliahs regarded as the ancestor of their family. See Ibn Daud, "Sefer ha-Ḳabbalah," in Neubauer's "Medieval Jewish Chronicles," i. 74, and Albalia.G. H. G....
CÆCILIUS OF CALACTE – Rhetorician, critic, and historian; flourished in the first century B.C. at Calacte, a town on the northern coast of Sicily. He was the first Jew noted for literary activity at Rome. Little is known of his life. He was born a...
CALIGULA (CAIUS CÆSAR AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS) – Third emperor of Rome; born Aug. 31, 12 C.E. ; assassinated at Rome Jan. 24, 41. He soon displayed the characteristics which made his reign a blot on Roman history. He formed a strong friendship for the Jewish king Agrippa, who,...
CAMPANTON, ISAAC B. JACOB – Spanish rabbi; born 1360; died at Penafeel in 1463. He lived in the period darkened by the outrages of Ferran Martinez and Vicente Ferrer, when intellectual life and Talmudic erudition were on the decline among the Jews of...
DANCING – Biblical Data: Rhythmical and measured stepping to the accompaniment of music, singing, or the beating of drums. This exercise, generally expressive of joy, is found among all primitive peoples. It was originally incident to...
LADVOCAT, JEAN-BAPTISTE – Christian Hebraist; born at Vaucouleurs Jan. 3, 1709; died at Paris Dec. 29, 1765. Though he achieved particular distinction as a Hebraist and Biblical exegete, this was not the only branch of scholarship in which he excelled:...