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Moïse Schwab, Ph.D.

Librarian of the Hebrew Department at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France.

Contributions:
ABRAHAM BEN SHEM-ṬOB – Medical writer; born in the middle of the thirteenth century, probably at Marseilles, where his father, Shem-Ṭob ben Isaac of Tortosa, practised medicine. He is author of a medical handbook ( ) in ninety-one paragraphs. Of this,...
AGDE – A town in the department of Hérault, France, two miles from the Mediterranean Sea and thirty miles from Montpellier. Probably there was a Jewish community here some time before the sixth century; for the Council of Agde, which...
AGEN – A town in the department of Lot-et-Garonne, France, on the banks of the Garonne, southeast of Bordeaux. Some Jews settled here in the beginning of the twelfth century. The records show that the Jews of Agen were the first...
AIRE – A fortified town on the river Adour, in southern France. There is no certainty that a Jewish community ever existed here; but about the middle of the thirteenth century a Hebrew poet composed a eulogy on his native town which,...
ANTI-JUIF, L' – A name assumed by nine different publications issued in France and Algiers and directed against the Jews. In nearly every case they were short-lived. The first "Anti-Juif," a weekly, published in Paris, describing itself as an...
BAILLY, JEAN-SYLVAIN – Astronomer and publicist; born in Paris Sept. 15, 1736; guillotined Nov. 12, 1793. He was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1763 and of the Académie Française in 1784. In 1789 he was elected by the citizens of...
BARATIER, JEAN PHILIPPE – Christian translator of Benjamin of Tudela's travels; born at Schwabach, Bavaria, in 1721; died in 1740. He was only thirteen years old when he published his first work, "Voyages de Rabbi Benjamin Fils de Jona de Tudèle....
BARFAT – Name used by Jews in Provence and northern Spain; e.g., = "Barfat certifies as witness," found in an agreement between Pedro II. of Aragon and the Knights of St. Jean (MS. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale); "Niçak Barfat"...
BARGÈS, JEAN JOSEPH LEANDRE – Honorary canon of Notre Dame of Paris, abbé and Orientalist; born in 1810 at Auriol (Bouches-du-Rhône); died in 1896 near Marseilles. From 1835 he was a member of the Asiatic Society of Paris. After delivering lectures on Arabic...
BARUCH DE DIGNE – Rabbi of central France toward the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century; surnamed "Ha-Gadol" (the Great) in the responsa of Isaac b. Immanuel de Lattes. His first studies were made in Provence. An...
BASNAGE, JACOB CHRISTIAN – Protestant pastor; born at Rouen, France, Aug. 8, 1653; died in Holland Dec. 22, 1725. At the age of twenty-three he took charge of the Protestant Church of Rouen, succeeding Etienne Le Moine, who had been called to Leyden as...
BENJAMIN B. ISAAC OF CARCASSONNE – This scholar is known only by his translation from Latin into Hebrew, under the title of "'Ezer Eloah" (Divine Help), of the work of Jean de Bourgogne, of the province of Liége, on the corruption of the air by the plague. This...
BERENGER OF NARBONNE – Viscount of Narbonne in the eleventh century. In the midst of the important wars of that century waged for the assertion of their temporal power, the popes still found time to protect the Jews. Alexander II. was their...
BERNARD OF GORDON – Christian physician; born probably at Gordon in Guienne, department of Lot, France; professor of medicine at Montpellier about the year 1300. His "Lilium Medicinæ" was much read by Jews, and several Hebrew translations of it are...
BESANÇON – City and county of France, in the department of Doubs. Although no mention is made of this city in Jewish sources, it is known that it had a prominent part in the history of the Jews and was also of some importance even from a...
BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE, PARIS – National library of France, founded in 1354. The Hebrew manuscripts in this library have always stood at the head of the Oriental collections, their number now amounting to 1,390. In importance and number of volumes, this...
BLOCH, JULIENNE – French educator and writer; died Nov. 12, 1868. She was the eldest and most distinguished daughter of Simon Bloch, founder and director of the journal "L'Univers Israélite"; the other three daughters being Pauline, Jenny, and...
BOMBERG, DANIEL – List of Bomberg's Hebrew Works. "Tefillot Latini." Italian Jewish Prayers Printed in Hebrew Characters, Bologna, 1538.(In the Library of Columbia University.)Christian printer and publisher of Hebrew works; born at Antwerp; died...
BONAFOS (V03p300007.jpg), VIDAL – Page From Bomberg's Edition of The Talmud, 1526.(In the Union Theological Seminary, New York.)Talmudist of Barcelona, at the end of the thirteenth century. Bonafos took a very active part in the anti-Maimonistic controversy, and...
BONDAVI (EN) – Translator; brother of Samuel of Marseilles; lived at Tarascon in the first half of the fourteenth century. Bondavi assisted his brother in revising the Hebrew translation, by Jacob ben Machir, of Abu Mohammed Jabir ibn Aflaḥ's...
BOURGES – Capital of the department of Cher, France. From the beginning of the Middle Ages Jews dwelt in Bourges. It is recorded that in 568, and again in 624, attempts were made to convert them to Christianity ("Gallia Christiana," ii....
MUNK, SALOMON – At Paris. French Orientalist; born at Gross Glogau May 14, 1803; died in Paris Feb. 5, 1867. He received his first instruction in Hebrew from his father, an official of the Jewish community; and on the latter's death he joined...
PARIS – Capital city of France. There were Jews in Paris prior to the date of the Frankish invasion. The councils of Varennes in 465 and of Orleans in 533, 538, and 541 adopted certain measures against the Jews, from which it would...