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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A. Freimann, Ph.D.

Editor of the "Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie"; Librarian of the Hebrew Department, Stadtbibliothek, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.

Contributions:
AHRWEILER – Town of Rhenish Prussia, twenty-three miles northwest of Coblenz, on the river Ahr. It is mentioned in the year 1248 as containing a Jewish colony. In 1255 and 1262 a number of Jews of Ahrweiler acquired property at Cologne;...
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (AACHEN) – A city in Rhenish Prussia, in which a Jewish settlement flourished during the time of the Roman empire. In the Carlovingian period there was a colony of Jews near the royal palace; and the Jewish merchants of Aix-la-Chapelle are...
ALMANAC – An annual table, book, or the like, comprising a calendar of days, weeks, and months. Among the Jews it was the holy prerogative of the patriarch or president of the Great Sanhedrin to fix the calendar and according to it...
AMBERG – A town in the district of the Upper Palatinate and Regensburg (Ratisbon), Bavaria; inhabited by Jews from the thirteenth century. In 1298 the town authorities ordered that the rights of the Jews be respected; but in the same...
ANDERNACH – An ancient city in the Prussian governmental district of Coblenz. From very early times a Jewish community was sheltered within its walls. About 1255-60 a certain Godelif, his wife Bela, and their son Moses, all of Andernach,...
ANHALT – An ancient principality of Germany, now a state of the German empire; formerly divided into four duchies: Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Köthen, and Anhalt-Zerbst. Its former capital was Zerbst, a town on a tributary of...
ANSBACH – Ancient town of Bavaria, Germany; the capital of Middle Franconia, situated on the Rezat, twenty-five miles southwest of Nuremberg. There was a Jewish settlement here in 1328, but it was annihilated by the Flagellants in 1349....
ARNSTADT – Capital of the German principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, on the River Gera. In 1264 (Aug. 5 and 7) there were outbreaks here against the Jews, in which five were slain (the learned R. Shabbethai ben Samuel; Joseph and...
AUGSBURG – Capital of the districts of Swabia and Neuburg, Bavaria. According to tradition, it is one of the oldest Jewish communities in Germany. The first documentary mention of the city is in 1259; but individual Jews of Augsburg are...
BABENHAUSEN – A city of Hesse, district of Starkenburg, Germany. Jews are reported to have resided here as early as 1320. At the request of the nobleman Arrosius von Breuberg, certain Jews were placed under the ban, and all intercourse...
BACHARACH – City in the Prussian government district of Coblenz. On April 19, 1283, twenty-six Jews were murdered there, among them the boy Hezekiah, whose father, Jacob, had been killed at Lorch in 1276. In 1287 the Bacharach Jews were...
BADEN, GRAND DUCHY OF – A state of the German empire, bounded on the north by Bavaria and Hesse; on the east by Bavaria, Württemberg, and Hohenzollern; on the south by Switzerland, and on the west by Alsace-Lorraine and Rhenish Bavaria. Owing to the...
BAK – A family of Hebrew printers in Italy and Prague, who exercised their craft for two centuries. The name is said to be an abbreviation of "Bene Ḳedoshim" (Children of the Holy), an assumption, however, which is somewhat...
BAMBERG – City in Upper Franconia, Bavaria. As early as the beginning of the eleventh century Jews had settled at Bamberg. In the second half of the twelfth century Benjamin of Tudela, at the end of his "Travels," mentions its large...
BARUCH, JACOB – President ("Baumeister") of the Jewish congregation of Frankfort-on-the-Main at the beginning of the nineteenth century; father of Ludwig Börne. Jacob's father was financial agent of the elector of Cologne. Baruch is described...
BASCHWITZ – A family of printers, of which the following were the most prominent members:1. Meïr Baschwitz: Born at Dyhernfurth; son of Ẓebi Hirsch ben Meïr (No. 2). In 1731-32 he worked in the establishment of Israel b. Abraham in...
BASHUYSEN, HEINRICH JACOB – Christian printer of Hebrew books and Orientalist; born at Hanau, Prussia, Oct. 26, 1679; died about 1750. He founded a printing-establishment in his native city between 1709 and 1712; and over 100 publications were issued from...
BASSEVI, HENDEL – Daughter of Ebert Geronim, and second wife of Jacob Bassevi, son of Abraham Bassevi and president of the congregation of Prague. She died in the summer of 1628. Her tomb is embellished with the family coat of arms—a blue lion...
BAT-SHEBA – A family of printers, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, whose name originates from the feminine name "Bath-sheba." The printer Mattathia Bat-Sheba, who died at Salonica toward the close of 1600, is the first known...
BAUER, MARIE-BERNARD – Chaplain of the Tuileries, Paris; born 1829 at Budapest, Hungary; died 1898. Through the Carmelite priest Augustin (whose actual name was Hermann Cohen), Bauer, after an adventurous youth in which he tried all sorts of métiers,...
BAYREUTH – Had a Chief Rabbi in 1372. Principality and capital city of the government district of Oberfranken, Bavaria. Mention is first made of the Jews of Bayreuth in a document of the year 1343. In that year Kalman of Bayreuth is spoken...
BEER, AMALIE – German philanthropist and communal worker; died at Berlin June 22 (24), 1854. She was the wife of the banker Jacob Herz Beer, daugher of Liebmann Meyer Wolf (known as "the Berlin Crœsus"), and great-granddaughter of Lipmann Wolf...
BEHRENDS, LEFFMANN – LIEPMANN COHEN): Financial agent of the dukes and princes of Hanover; born about 1630; died at Hanover Jan. 1, 1714. His honorable position is lauded by Mannasseh b. Israel in his "Hope of Israel." Behrends frequently used his...
BELOVAR – Town in Croatia, Austria. The Jewish community of Belovar was founded about 1877, when some fifty Jewish families settled there.While in Belovar, Moritz Grünwald published there the "Jüdisch-Literarisches Centralblatt." The...
BERG – An independent duchy until 1815; at present part of the Prussian Rhine province. Jews settled here at an early period. In 1298 Count Wilhelm of Berg protected them against the hordes led by Rindfleisch. At the time of the Black...