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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A. Freimann, Ph.D.

Editor of the "Zeitschrift für Hebräische Bibliographie"; Librarian of the Hebrew Department, Stadtbibliothek, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.

Contributions:
BERLIN – Capital of Prussia and of the German empire. Though mentioned as early as the year 1225, it was an unimportant place during the whole of the Middle Ages. Not much is known of the Jews there during that period, yet there is...
BEUTHEN – City of Prussian Silesia. No precise information is forthcoming as to when Jews first settled in the city. The mention of Beuthen in the Mainzer Memorbuch (year 1231) is uncertain; but it is known that Jews lived there as early...
BINDING – The art of fastening together sheets of paper, leaves of parchment, or folios, and of covering them with parchment, leather, linen, or paste-boards. It was originally practised by the writer of the book. When books were written...
BISCHOFSHEIM-ON-THE-TAUBER – City in the district of Mosbach, Baden. At Landa and the neighboring Tauber-Bischofsheim seven prominent Jews were tortured and burned, Jan. 1 and 2, 1235, on the accusation of having murdered a Christian. Nearly the whole...
BONN – City in Rhenish Prussia. It had a Jewish community at an early date. Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (b. 1133), as a boy of thirteen, was among the Jews who, in September, 1146, sought refuge from the Crusaders in the fortress...
BORDERS – Ornamental designs surrounding printed pages. The first ornaments for title-pages consisted of arabesque borders with white figures. They are found in books printed at Lisbon, 1489-92, the plates of which, together with Eliezer...
BOSKOWITZ – Town in Moravia, about 21 miles to the north of Brünn. It has one of the oldest and most important communities in the province, though in numbers it had dwindled to 1,967 Jewish inhabitants in 1880. Even in early times there was...
BRAGADINI – Family of printers at Venice. After the decline of the Bomberg printing-press a fierce rivalry grew up at Venice among the patrician families who wished to profit by printing Hebrew books. Among these, two distinguished...
BRANDENBURG – Province of Prussia. In documents of the thirteenth century Jews are mentioned as living in the mark of Brandenburg and carrying on commerce there. In Belitz they were accused of having desecrated the host in 1243; and a similar...
BREMEN – Free city of the German empire; remarkable as one of the places where few Jews have ever dwelt. A baptized Jew, Paulus, is said to have taught alchemy there to Archbishop Adalbert about the middle of the eleventh century....
BUDWEIS – City of Bohemia. Jews were settled there in the first half of the fourteenth century, possibly earlier. In 1337 the community was destroyed by the Flagellants. In 1341 King John I. of Bohemia again admitted two Jews, who were...
CASAL MAGGIORE – Town in Italy, about twenty-two miles east-southeast of Cremona. In Sept., 1485, Joshua Solomon and Moses, sons of Israel Nathan of Soncino, began to print a large Maḥzor according to the Roman ritual. In the following year they...
CASSEL – City in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. There was a persecution of the Jews at Wolfshagen, near Cassel, during the Black Death in 1348; and Hesse-Cassel is mentioned in the same year as a scene of persecution. In 1610...
COBLENZ – Prussian city on the Rhine. Jews settled there between 1135 and 1159, and are first mentioned in the "Judenschreinsbuch" (Archives) of Cologne. As early as 1100 there is mention of a custom-house in Coblenz at which Jews were...
COHN, FALK – German rabbi; born at Dessau Sept. 18, 1833; died at Bonn March 6, 1901. The son of a rabbi and teacher at the Herzogliche Franzschule at Dessau, he began the study of the Talmud in his early youth. After his matriculation he...
COHN, SOLOMON – German rabbi; born at Zülz, Prussian Silesia, March 24, 1822; died in Breslau Sept. 22, 1902. He was a grandson of Rabbi Meshullam Solomon Cohn of Fürth. Solomon Cohn attended the yeshibah at Presburg for a short time, and then...
CONSTANCE, DISTRICT OF THE LAKE OF – Region in the northeastern part of Switzerland. Of the Jewish communities designated as belonging to the district of the Lake of Constance, those of Ueberlingen, Constance, Schaffhausen, and Diessenhofen deserve special mention,...
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN – In the Thirteenth Century. City in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, Germany. The date of the organization of its Jewish community is uncertain. Probably no Jews were living in Frankfort at the time of the first and second...
HOROVITZ, MARKUS – German rabbi and historian; born March 14, 1844, at Ladány, near Tokaj, Hungary. The descendant of an ancient family of scholars, he pursued his rabbinical studies at the yeshibot of Ujhely, Verbé, and Eisenstadt (the last-named...
KARLSRUHE (CARLSRUHE) – German city; capital of the grand duchy of Baden. Jews began to settle there soon after its foundation (1715) by Margrave Carl Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach; they were attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to...
PRINTERS' MARKS – Signets, coats of arms, or pictures printed, from engravings, at the end of a book or, later, on the title-page. Their use dates from soon after the invention of printing. The seals of the printers or the coats of arms of the...