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Adolf Guttmacher, Ph.D.

Rabbi, Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, Baltimore, Md.

Contributions:
COURAGE – That quality which enables one to encounter danger and difficulties with firmness, calmness, and intrepidity; Hebrew, ("Be of good courage," II Sam. x. 12), or ("Be strong and of a good courage," Deut. xxxi. 7, 23; Joshua i....
FAMILY AND FAMILY LIFE – The family includes either those who are descended from a common progenitor, as "bet Dawid," the house (dynasty) of David (I Sam. xx. 16); "bet Lewi," the house (tribe) of Levi (Num. xvii. 8); "bet Yisrael," the house (nation)...
FEAR OF GOD – The Hebrew equivalent of "religion." It is the mainspring of religion, morality, and wisdom, and is productive of material prosperity and well-being. Who fears God will refrain from doing the things that would be displeasing to...
FEAR OF MAN – Respect of parents is especially enjoined by both Scripture and Talmud (Ex. xx. 12; Deut. v. 16). The Talmud makes reverence for parents equal in importance to reverence for God (Ḳid. 30b), for parents are God's representatives...
FORGIVENESS – Forgiveness is one of the attributes ascribed to Yhwh: "to the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness" (Dan. ix. 9; comp. Ex. xxxiv. 6-7; Num. xiv. 18 et seq.; Ps. lxxxvi. 5; Jonah iv. 2). The condition essential to God's...
FRIENDSHIP – Personal attachment to an individual due to mutual interests or arising from close intimacy or acquaintance.The historical books of the Bible furnish several instances of genuine friendship; and the pithy sayings of the Wisdom...
HAPPINESS – Biblical Data: Everywhere in the Old Testament the joyous and harmonious notes of life are accentuated. Life is synonymous with good and blessing. This predominant note of happiness was undoubtedly the outcome of faith and of a...
HEART – Biblical Data: The seat of the emotional and intellectual life. "Keep thy heart with all diligence; for out of it are the issues of life" (Prov. iv. 23), refers to the moral and spiritual as well as the physical life. Animals...
HOPE – The expectation of something desired. The Hebrew terms for "hope" are "tiḳwah" and "seber," while "miḳweh" and "kislah" denote "trust"; and "toḥelet" signifies "expectation."—Biblical Data: Hope, a characteristic element of...
MALACHI, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The Book of Malachi is the last in the canon of the Old Testament Prophets. It has three chapters in the Masoretic text, while in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the Peshiṭta it has four. The King James Version...
PEACE – Biblical Data: The primary meaning of the word is "prosperity," "health" (Jer. xxix. 7; Job xv. 21 [A. V. "prosperity"]; Isa. xlviii. 18; Ps. cxxii. 6; Abot iii. 2). It is used in salutations, as when Jacob asked the shepherds...