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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D.

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York.

Contributions:
ABNER OF BURGOS – A Jewish convert to Christianity and polemical writer against his former religion; born 1270; died 1348, or a little later (Grätz). As a student he acquired a certain mastery in Biblical and Talmudical studies, to which he added...
ACOSTA, URIEL – Religious Scruples. Noted writer and rationalist; born at Oporto, 1590; died at Amsterdam, April, 1647. Born and reared in a Marano family, all of whose members had become strict Catholics—his father held an ecclesiastical...
ADARSA – A village in Judea, thirty furlongs from Beth-horon, and a three days' march from Gazera. Eusebius ("Onomasticon," s.v.) describes it as being near Guphna. Under the name of Adasa it is mentioned in I Macc. vii. 40, and in...
AGRICULTURE – Historical Aspects: Israel Originally Pastoral. Agriculture was the basis of the national life of the Israelites; state and Temple in Palestine were alike founded on it. At the outset the Hebrews are represented as a pastoral...
AGRICULTURE – Historical Aspects: Israel Originally Pastoral. Agriculture was the basis of the national life of the Israelites; state and Temple in Palestine were alike founded on it. At the outset the Hebrews are represented as a pastoral...
AL-ḤARIZI, JUDAH B. SOLOMON B. HOPHNI – A celebrated Hebrew poet of the early part of the thirteenth century, who lived in Spain and traveled in the Orient. Neither the date of his birth nor that of his death is known. Possessing a masterly knowledge of Hebrew and...
ALMOSNINO – A distinguished Jewish family originally dwelling in Aragon. The name, according to Jellinek (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." No. 6430), is derived from the Arabic and denotes "an orator." The following members of the family...
AMERICA, JUDAISM IN – Judaism in America—by its logical and historical development of Judaism in its most recent sphere of activity—promises to react upon and in certain directions modify all existing phases of the faith. It varies essentially from...
AMERICAN JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY – An association founded in 1873 by a number of New York Jews: Leopold Bamberger, Benjamin I. Hart, Myer Stern, Edward Morrison, Arnold Tanzer, and Louis Lewengood, with William B. Hackenberg of Philadelphia and Simon Wolf of...
ARCHER, ARCHERY – The bow as a weapon in war and the chase was familiar to the Hebrews from patriarchal times (Gen. xxi. 20, xxvii. 3, xlviii. 22). Jonathan and Jehu were expert archers (II Sam. i. 22; II Kings ix. 24); the tribe of Benjamin was...
ARMORY – A word occurring only three times in the A. V. In Jer. 1. 25 it is used figuratively ("The Lord hath opened his armory and brought forth the weapons of his indignation"). In Song of Songs iv. 4 reference is made to a tower of...
ASHER, LEON – German physician; born April 13, 1865, in Leipsic. He is the son of Dr. David Asher, for many years secretary to Chief Rabbi Nathan M. Adler in London. Leon Asher, after graduating from the public school in Leipsic, studied...
BACHER, WILHELM – Hungarian scholar and Orientalist; son of the Hebrew writer Simon; born in Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary, Jan. 12, 1850; he attended the Hebrew schools in Szucsán and in his native town, and passed through the higher classes of...
BAER, HERMAN – American author; born of Jewish parents at Herxheim, Germany, Jan. 29, 1830; died at Charleston, S. C., Jan. 2, 1901. He emigrated to America when a lad of seventeen, and settled in Charleston, where he obtained employment as...
BARREN, BARRENNESS – The Hebrew word for "barren"— ('akar); feminine, ('aḳarah)—denotes probably "uprooted," in the sense of being torn away from the family stock, and left to wither without progeny or successors. A similar import attaches to the...
BARUCH, SIMON – Serves in the Civil War. American physician; born at Schwersenz, Prussia, July 29, 1840; educated at the Royal Gymnasium, Posen. Emigrating at an early age to America, he studied at the medical colleges of South Carolina and...
BATHS, BATHING – Symbolic Significance. The clean body as an index and exponent of a clean soul, and thus of an approximation to holiness, is so natural a conception in the human mind that the records of early Jewish legislation accept the...