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George A. Barton, Ph.D.

Professor of Biblical Literature and Semitic Languages, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

Contributions:
KINGS, BOOKS OF – Biblical Data: Fourth book of the second canonical division of the Hebrew Bible, the Prophets ( ). It contains a history of the kings of Judah and of Israel from the last days of David till the capture of Zedekiah by...
KORAH – 1. Son of Esau by Aholibamah; mentioned as a "duke" ( ) of the land of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 5, 14, 18; I Chron. i. 35). 2. Son of Eliphaz, Esau's son by Adah; also mentioned as a "duke" of Edom (Gen. xxxvi. 16). 3. Son of Hebron of...
LEVI – Biblical Data: The tribe of Levi was descended from the patriarch Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. xxix. 34). Levi shared in Simeon's treachery toward the men of Shechem (Gen. xxxiv. 25-30), in consequence of which,...
LEVITES (Temple Servants) – Biblical Data: Of the Levites, Aaron and his sons were chosen for the priestly office (Ex. xxviii. 1 et seq.); the menial services of the Tabernacle were assigned to the rest of the tribe (Num. i. 47 et seq.). The Kohathites...
LEVITICUS – Biblical Data: Illuminated Page of Leviticus.(From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the Duke of Sussex.)The English name is derived from the Latin "Liber Leviticus," which is from the Greek (το) Λενιτικόν (i.e.,...
LEVITICUS – Biblical Data: Illuminated Page of Leviticus.(From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the Duke of Sussex.)The English name is derived from the Latin "Liber Leviticus," which is from the Greek (το) Λενιτικόν (i.e.,...
MACCABEES, BOOKS OF – I. There are four books which pass under this name—I, II, III, and IV Maccabees. The first of these is the only one of the four which can be regarded as a reliable historical source.I Maccabees: The First Book of the Maccabees...
MEDEBA – A town east of the Dead Sea and a few miles south of Heshbon. It was wrested from the Moabites by Sihon, King of the Amorites (Num. xxi. 30); and after the conquest of Palestine it was assigned, together with the plain in which...
MOLOCH (MOLECH) – Biblical Data: In the Masoretic text the name is "Molech"; in the Septuagint "Moloch." The earliest mention of Molech is in Lev. xviii. 21, where the Israelite is forbidden to sacrifice any of his children to Molech. Similarly,...
MOSES – Biblical Data: The birth of Moses occurred at a time when Pharaoh had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew captives should be thrown into the Nile (Ex. ii.; comp. i.). Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a...
MOSES – Biblical Data: The birth of Moses occurred at a time when Pharaoh had commanded that all male children born to Hebrew captives should be thrown into the Nile (Ex. ii.; comp. i.). Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a...
NABATÆANS – Semitic tribe or group of tribes which overran the ancient Edomite country and established a kingdom which extended from Damascus on the north to Hegra (Al-Hajr) on the south. Their power at one period was felt in central Arabia...
NAZARETH – Town in Galilee, situated in a valley to the north of the plain of Esdraelon. It is about 1,200 feet above the level of the Mediterranean. Nazareth first appears in the New Testament as the place where Jesus passed his boyhood...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...
NAZARITE – One who lives apart; one who has made a vow of abstinence; in the former sense used as early as Sifra, Emor, iv. 3; Sifre, Num. 23.Nazarite Laws. —Biblical Data: Three restrictions are imposed upon the Nazarite, according to...
NEBO, MOUNT – According to Deut. xxxii. 49 and xxxiv. 1-3, it was from this mountain that Moses, just before his death, surveyed the promised land. Both these passages belong to the Priestly Code (P). This mountain is probably the same as the...
NECHO – King of Egypt from 610 to 594 B.C.; son of Psam(m)ethik I., of the twenty-sixth Egyptian dynasty. According to Herodotus (ii. 158), he undertook to connect an arm of the Nile with the Red Sea by means of a canal; he was really...
NERGAL – God of the Babylonian city of Cuthah or Cuth or Kutu. In II Kings xvii. 30 it is said that the men of Cuth, whom Sargon settled in Samaria, made an image of Nergal. A Phenician funerary inscription erected by a Sidonian at...
NUMBERS, BOOK OF – Fourth book of the Pentateuch. In the Septuagint version it bears the title 'ΑριΘμο in the Vulgate, "Numeri," from the command given by God, contained in the first chapter, to number the children of Israel. In Jewish literature...
OBADIAH, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: This book, which bears the title "The Vision of Obadiah," consists of but twenty-one verses, which are devoted to a prophecy against Edom. The prophecy is usually divided into two parts: verses 1-9 and 10-21. In...
OX – Biblical Data: Among the agricultural Semites the ox or bull had a sacred character. Thus in Sabea it was sacred to Athtar (comp. Mordtmann in "Z. D. M. G." xxx. 289, and Barton in "Hebraica," x. 58); at Tyre, Astarte was...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PARADISE – Biblical Data: The word "paradise" is probably of Persian origin. It occurs but three times in the Old Testament, namely, in Cant. iv. 13, Eccl. ii. 5, and Neh. ii. 8. In the first of these passages it means "garden"; in the...
PRIESTLY CODE – Name given by modern scholars to that stratum of the Pentateuch which deals with ceremonial regulations, especially those which relate to sacrifice and purification. These laws once formed part of an independent narrative, which...
RECHABITES – Biblical Data: Members of a family descended from Hammath, the progenitor of the house of Rechab; otherwise known as the Kenites (I Chron. ii. 55), who were the descendants of Hobab (Jethro), the father-in-law of Moses (Judges...