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Hermann Vogelstein, Ph.D.

Rabbi, Königsberg, East Prussia, Germany.

Contributions:
ALLENSTEIN – Town in the district of Königsberg, eastern Prussia. The small Jewish community there was established Feb. 25, 1862. Before that date there were only a few families in the town, and they rented a room for divine services. The...
ANAN BEN MARINUS HA-KOHEN – Rabbinical authority in Siponte; born probably about 1040. Conjointly with his somewhat older colleague, Kalonymus ben Shabbethai, he signed a rabbinical responsum before the latter removed to Worms, 1070. His colleagues in...
ANAW – The name of a Jewish family that settled in Italy, and which was originally resident at Rome. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome upon the destruction of...
ANAW – The name of a Jewish family that settled in Italy, and which was originally resident at Rome. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome upon the destruction of...
ANGELUS – A Jewish merchant in Rome in the thirteenth century, who, with other merchants— Sabbatinus, Museus, Salamon, and Consiliolus—held commercial relations with the papal court. They were associated in business with Christians who...
BODO – Bishop and chaplain of Emperor Louis the Pious. After a dissolute life at court, he made (838) a pilgrimage to Rome, was converted to Judaism, assuming the name of Eleazar, and married a Jewess. He then went into military...
CHURCH COUNCILS – Synods of the Roman Catholic Church, possessing legislative power in matters pertaining to doctrine and discipline. The Apostles' synod at Jerusalem (Acts xv.) is regarded as the oldest example of such an assembly. Besides the...
CLAUDIUS – Roman emperor, 41-54 C.E. Claudius was the second son of Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius. Being of a feeble constitution, and unprepossessing in appearance, he was slighted by everybody, even by his own mother....
CLAUDIUS, RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS – Roman poet. He held high public offices in Rome, but returned (416) to Gaul, the land of his birth, after the devastation of the latter by the Goths. He depicts his return in his poem "De Reditu Suo." As a polytheist he was...
CONSTANTINE I. (FLAVIUS VALERIUS AURELIUS CONSTANTINUS) – Roman emperor; born Feb. 27, 274; died May 22, 337; proclaimed emperor by the army in Gaul on the death of his father, Constantius Chlorus (306). He defeated Maxentius, his rival in Italy, in 312; and after routing Licinius,...
DAMIANI, PETER – Italian prelate; born at Ravenna 1007; died at Faenza 1072. About 1035 he entered the convent of Fonte Avellana near Gubbio, of which he became abbot. Together with Hildebrand, subsequently Pope Gregory VII., and Abbot...
DANTE, ALIGHIERI – Florentine poet; born 1265; died at Ravenna Sept. 14, 1321. Dante took an active part in the political feuds then distracting his native city, and in 1302 was banished. From that time on he lived in exile, enjoying from time to...
DOMITIAN – Roman emperor 81-96; born in 51; assassinated in 96. In 69, when his father Vespasian was proclaimed emperor, Domitian was the center of the Flavian party in Rome. Succeeding his brother Titus in the government, he provoked the...
FATTORI – The executive body of the Roman community, consisting of three persons elected for one, later for one-half, year, by the representatives of the community. They called the meetings of the community; their consent was necessary in...
GREGORY I., THE GREAT – Pope from 590 to 604; born about 540; died 604. Descended from an old Roman senatorial family, he had held various high official positions when he suddenly retired to one of the cloisters which he had founded. Sent as ambassador...
JOAB – Jewish family to which belonged Aaron b. Samuel ha-Nasi, who lived for some time at Oria in Apulia in the second half of the ninth century. The name "Joab" has been especially frequent since the tenth century in the Roman family...
KÖNIGSBERG – Capital of the province of East Prussia. It was founded by the knights of the Teutonic Order, the laws of which excluded the Jews from its territory. After the secularization of the order Duke Albert granted to two Jewish...
MEMEL – City in the district of Königsberg, East Prussia. It has a population of 19,796, including 1,214 Jews (1900). The earliest mention of the Jews of Memel occurs in connection with the adjournment of the diet by Duke Albrecht April...
PIERLEONI – Noble Roman family of Jewish origin. A Jewish banker of Rome who had acquired a princely fortune was baptized in the first half of the eleventh century, took the name of Benedictus Christianus, and married the daughter of a...
PIUS IV. (Gian Angelo Medici) – Pope from 1559 to 1565. He was a Milanese of humble origin. and became cardinal under Paul III., through the latter's relations with Gian's brother Giangiacomo, who had made himself master of Sienna. Gian, who enjoyed the pope's...
PORTALEONE – Jewish family of northern Italy, which probably derived its name from the quarter of Portaleone, situated in the vicinity of the ghetto of Rome. In 1399 Elhanan Portaleone was dayyan in Lombardy. The family included many...
RIEGER, PAUL – German rabbi and historian; born at Dresden July 4, 1870. He was educated at Dresden and at the universities of Breslau (Ph.D. 1894) and Berlin. At Breslau he studied also at the Jewish Theological Seminary and at Berlin at the...