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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D.

Professor of History at the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums, Berlin, Germany.

Contributions:
BRESCIA – City and province of Lombardy, Italy. The Jews first settled there during Roman times. A commemorative stone, dating from the fifth century, probably comes from a synagogue. In the Middle Ages definite information concerning the...
BRUNETTI, ANGELO – Popular Roman leader, and advocate of the emancipation of the Jews; born in Rome 1800; died there Aug. 10, 1849. Inspired by the patriot Mazzini, Brunetti labored not only for the deliverance of his native city, but also for the...
CANTONI, LELIO – Italian rabbi; born in 1802 at Gazzuolo (dukedom of Mantua); died in 1857 at Turin. In 1829 he went to the Istituto Rabbinico at Padua, then recently established, graduating as rabbi in 1832. From 1833 until his death he was...
CARPI, LEONE – Italian political economist; born 1820 at Bologna, Italy. He was the first deputy elected to the Italian Parliament by the city of Ferrara. Carpi, on the expiration of his term, divided his time between Bologna and Rome, where...
CASTELLACCIO DA ASOLA – Locality near Mantua, Italy, where there was a great slaughter of Jews in 1547. Gershon Cantarini, the ancestor of the celebrated family of that name, was born there in 1546.Bibliography: Osimo Marco, Narrazione della Strage...
CENTO – City of 8,000 inhabitants in the province of Ferrara, central Italy. If the statement is correct that the Ha-Me'ati ( ), a family of translators, derived their name from their native place, Cento ( , "a hundred" = cento), there...
CESENA – City of the Pontifical States. In early times a Jewish community existed here, of which the tosafist Eliezer is mentioned in the thirteenth century. The "payyeṭan" Moses de Rossi and the exegete Obadiah Sforno were born in the...
CIVIDALI – Italian city, in the province of Udine. It is a part of the ancient duchy of Friuli, now divided between Austria and Italy. Aside from certain inscriptions preserved in the Cividali Museum, which would date the first Jewish...
COEN, ACHILLE – 1. Italian soldier; born at Leghorn in 1851. He studied at the military academy of his native town, and was appointed lieutenant in the engineer corps at the age of twenty. Subsequently assigned to the sharpshooters, he was...
COEN, GIUSEPPE – Italian painter; born in Ferrara 1811; died in Venice Jan. 26, 1856. He was descended from an old and distinguished family. As a boy he evinced a predilection for music and painting, and studied art without having any particular...
COMO – City on the Italian lake of the same name. Como never possessed a Jewish community, although a single Jewish family, with employees and servants, lived there for a time and conducted a banking business which was handed down from...
CONCIO (V04p204001.jpg), JOSEPH B. GERSHON – Italian author; lived at Asti and Chieri in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He published several Hebrew poems, including: "Ot le-Ṭobah," twenty-two sentences on Talmudic arguments in the order of the Hebrew alphabet,...
CONIGLIANI, CARLO – Italian jurist and political economist; born at Modena June 25, 1868; died there Dec. 6, 1901. After studying law at Modena, receiving the degree of doctor of laws in 1889, he was sent by the government to Padua and London for...
CONSOLO, BENJAMIN – Italian Hebraist; born at Ancona in 1806; died at Florence in 1887. He received his elementary instruction from Rabbi David A. Vivanti at the Talmud Torah of his native city, and then took up eagerly the study of secular...
CONSOLO, FEDERICO – Italian violin virtuoso, composer, and scholar; born at Ancona in 1841. After studying the violin with Giorgetti in Florence and Vieuxtemps in Brussels, and composition with Fétis and Liszt, he played with great success at...
CORI (Chore) – Village of Campania, Italy, about thirty miles from Rome. There is a small Jewish community there, the origin of which is not positively known, though it is probable that it was formed by settlers from Rome. The community is...
CORRIERE ISRAELITICO – Italian monthly magazine devoted to Jewish history and literature; founded at Triest in 1863 by Abrama Vito Morpurgo, who edited it six years, and at his death the editorship devolved upon A. di S. Curiel, Morpurgo's son-in-law,...
CREMONA – Italian city in the plain of Lombardy; capital of the province of Cremona. The beginnings of the Jewish community in this city appear to date back to the middle of the twelfth century, but the first authentic notice is of the...
CUNEO – Capital of the Italian province of the same name. According to local traditions, a Jewish community, founded probably after the expulsion of the Jews from France (1381), existed there in the fourteenth century. It seems to have...
CUSA, NICOLAUS DE – Philosopher and theologian; born in Cusa, or Kues, on the Moselle, 1401; died in Todi, Umbria, 1464. He was Bishop and Cardinal of Brixan (Tyrol) at his death. As theologian he was known for his liberal views and wide mental...
CUZZERI, SEMA – Italian poet; resident at Padua. He witnessed the terrible attack on the ghetto of Padua on Aug. 20, 1684. He portrays the sorrows of that time in an Italian poem entitled "L'Innocenza Illesa," and narrates the horrible...
DAVID B. ABRAHAM PROVENÇAL (PROVENZALE) – Italian scholar; born before 1538; eulogized by the greatest of his contemporaries as the most eminent preacher of his century and as a prominent scholar. He and his brothers Moses and Judah were leading members of the...
DONATI, CESARE – Italian novelist; born at Lugo, Romagna, Sept. 21, 1826. Persecuted by the Austrian government for having taken part in the revolution of 1848, he left his home in Finale in 1849 and went with his family to Toscana. He completed...
DONATI, MARCO – Italian lawyer; born in Padua Sept. 4, 1842; died at Terni June 11, 1901. Before he had completed his academic career he left the university in order to fight under Garibaldi. He served in the war with distinction, and on his...
DORBOLO – Rabbi about 1150; he traveled much, and knew Poland, Russia, Bohemia, France, and Germany from his own observations. Some time after 1140 he visited R. Tam in Rameru. In Worms, where he remained for some time, he reports having...