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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D.

Professor of History at the Lehranstalt für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums, Berlin, Germany.

Contributions:
EDUCATORE ISRAELITA – Monthly periodical founded by Giuseppe Levi, and published by him, in conjunction with Esdra Pontremoli, at Vercelli (1853-74). It advocated moderate Jewish reform, to be brought about by the cooperation of all communities....
EHRENREICH, MOSES LEVI – Italian rabbi; born at Brody, Galicia, 1818; died at Rome Dec. 27, 1899. Having graduated from the gymnasium of his native city, Ehrenreich, attracted by the reputation of Samuel David Luzzatto, went to Padua to study at the...
FAENZA – City in the province of Ravenna, and the family seat of the Finzi according to a tradition of the family; Maẓliaḥ (Felice) Finzi lived there as early as 1450. The physician Lazarus Hebræus, prominent in the fifteenth century on...
FANO – Small town in the Papal States near Pesaro. Jewish bankers of Fano are known to have had a large financial transaction with the Malatestas (the rulers of the city) as early as 1332. There was a great demand for loans in that...
FANO – Name of an Italian family, members of which have been prominent as scholars since the sixteenth century. Among them the following may be mentioned:Abraham ben Moses da Fano: Italian scholar of the fifteenth (?) century; author...
FERRARA – In the Thirteenth Century. City in central Italy; capital of the province and former duchy of the same name. The Jewish community of Ferrara was one of the most flourishing and important in Italy, and it gave to Judaism a number...
FINZI – An ancient Italian family, which probably derived its name from "Pineḥas," through the Latin "Finea." The remotest known bearers of the name of "Finzi" were Musetino del fu Museto do Finzi di Ancona, who was concerned in...
FLORENCE – Capital of Tuscany, Italy. Jews settled here probably before 1400. They were not needed in this flourishing commercial city, the scene of factional strife between the Guelfs and Ghibellines; there was an abundance of capital,...
FOÀ, PIO – Italian pathologist; born at Sabbionetta Jan. 26, 1848. He attended the lyceum at Milan; studied medicine at Pavia, and took postgraduate courses at the universities of Turin and Heidelberg. As Rizzozero's pupil in pathologic...
FORLI – City in the Romagna, Italy. It is mentioned for the first time in connection with Jewish history by Hillel of Verona, who lived at Forli for some time about 1290, and there wrote his circular letter to Maestro Gaio and his work...
FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID – Italian scholar and poet; born at Mantua in 1615; died at Florence in 1667. After having been thoroughly grounded in the Talmud by his father, he continued his studies with Shemaiah de Medina ( ) at Venice. His reputation as a...
FRANCHETTI, AUGUSTO – Italian lawyer and historian; born at Florence July 10, 1840; attended the lycée at Marseilles; studied law at Pisa, where he was admitted to the bar in 1863; and then settled at Florence. As dramatic critic of "La Nazione" and...
FRANCHETTI, LEOPOLDO, BARON – Italian deputy; born at Florence in 1847; studied law at Pisa. In company with Deputy Sidney Sonnino he undertook a journey to Sicily for the purpose of studying the social, political, and economic conditionsof that island;...
FRIZZI, BENEDETTO (BENZION RAPHAEL KOHEN) – Italian physician and writer; born at Ostiano, Mantua, in 1756; died there May 30, 1844. In his youth he was instructed by Jesuits at Mantua, where he was the first Jew to attend a public school; there he showed a special...
FROSOLONI, ISAAC ḤAYYIM – Italian poet of the eighteenth century; born at Sienna; died at Leghorn 1794. On the completion of his Hebrew and secular studies at Sienna he went to Leghorn, where he became a member of the yeshibah. He formed an intimate...
GEDILIAH – Rabbi and Talmudist of the seventeenth century; came originally from Jerusalem, traveled in Italy, and lived in Leghorn; he was also rabbi in Verona. He corresponded with Samuel Aboab and Moses Zacuto, and was highly esteemed by...
GENOA – Middle Ages. An important Italian seaport on the Gulf of Genoa; also a former republic of the same name. It is very probable that even before the destruction of the Second Temple Jews from Rome settled in Genoa and took part in...
GENTILI – Italian family of Gorizia, several members of which were eminent rabbis and Talmudic authorities. Of these the most important were:Azriel Gentili: Cabalist; lived at Gorizia in the seventeenth century. He is quoted by Issachar...
GENTILI – Italian family of Gorizia, several members of which were eminent rabbis and Talmudic authorities. Of these the most important were:Azriel Gentili: Cabalist; lived at Gorizia in the seventeenth century. He is quoted by Issachar...
IBN YAḤYA, DAVID – Grammarian and philisopher; son of the martyr Don Joseph; born at Lisbon 1465; died 1543. He was a pupil of David ben Solomon ibn Yaḥya, a relative, who wrote expressly for him two school-books, entitled respectively "Leshon...
IḲRIṬI (V06p559001.jpg), SHEMARIAH B. ELIJAH OF NEGROPONT – Italian philosopher and Biblical exegete; contemporary of Dante and Immanuel; born probably at Rome about 1275, the descendant of a long line of Roman Jews. His father, in his youth, went as rabbi to Crete, whence his surname,...
IMMANUEL B. SOLOMON B. JEKUTHIEL – Italian scholar, satirical poet, and the most interesting figure among the Jews of Italy; born at Rome c. 1270; died probably at Fermo c. 1330. He was a member of an important and wealthy family, and occupied a very prominent...
JARE – Name of an ancient Italian family of scholars dating back to the fifteenth century.Giuseppe Jaré: Italian rabbi; born at Mantua, Dec., 1840. He was educated at the Istituto Rabbinico of Padua, being one of the last pupils of S....
JOSEPH ẒARFATI – Convert to Christianity and missionary to the Jews at Rome; died before 1597. He accepted Christianity in 1552, taking the name of Andrea (Filippo?) di Monti (more correctly del Monte) in honor of Julius III. He was born in Fez,...
JUDAH LEON DI LEONE – Italian rabbi from 1796 to 1835. Sent as a messenger from Hebron to Rome, he became rabbi in the latter city during the troublous times following the struggles of the Jews for emancipation and reform. He was one of the...