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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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J. S. Raisin,

Rabbi, Gemilut Chesed Congregation, Fort Gibson, Miss.

Contributions:
ALEXANDRIA, Louisiana – City on the south bank of the Red river, 360 miles northwest of New Orleans. The foundation of a Jewish community in Alexandria took place in 1848 when several Jews settled there. The total Jewish population in 1900 was 600, or...
ALNAQUA – An important family of Spanish Jews, the first mention of whom occurs late in the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name is written or . It is the same as or , though Steinschneider seems to be of a different opinion. In modern...
ALPRON, JACOB – Italian translator; died Dec. 22, 1622. He adapted and translated into Italian Benjamin ben Abraham of Solnik's "Miẓwot Nashim" (Precepts for Women) for the use of Jewish women in Italy. The translation became very popular and...
AMRAM OF JERUSALEM – Two scholars are known under this name. 1. A contemporary of Rashi (eleventh century), who maintained a learned correspondence with Samuel ha-Kohen. 2. A scholar who lived a hundred years later and was in correspondence with...
ANKAVA, JACOB BEN AMRAM – Translator; lived in Algeria in the nineteenth century. He translated from Spanish into Arabic a treatise onthe laws to be observed by Jewish women, under the title "Dat Yehudit" (Laws for the Jewess), Algiers,
EUCLID – Greek geometer; flourished in the fourth century B.C. He is mentioned, perhaps for the first time in Hebrew literature, by Rabbi Abraham bar Ḥiyya (d. 1136). Jacob ben Nissim also speaks of .The "Elements." Most of the oldest...
MICHAL – The younger of the two daughters of Saul, probably by Ahinoam (I Sam. xiv. 49-50). David, then a boy of about sixteen, was to have married her sister Merab; but the latter having been given to another, and Michal having fallen...
MITZKUN, DAVID MOSES – Russian Hebraist; born May, 1836; died in Wilna July 23, 1887. He was a writer of Hebrew prose and poetry, and maintained himself chiefly by teaching Hebrew. A collection of his Hebrew poems entitled "Kinnor Dawid" was published...
MORDECAI BEN NATHAN BEN ELIAKIM BEN ISAAC OF STRASBURG – French commentator; lived at Corbeil about the end of the thirteenth century. He was the author of a commentary on the "Sefer Miẓwot ha-Ḳaṭon (SeMaḲ)," published in the Constantinople edition.Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica,...
MOSES BEN SOLOMON OF SALERNO – Italian philosopher and commentator of the thirteenth century. Between 1240 and 1250 he wrote a commentary on Maimonides' "Moreh Nebukim," which he afterward revised in part; only a small portion of the work, with annotations by...
MOSES BEN TODROS – Spanish rabbi; lived about 1150. He was for many years nasi of Narbonne, and was both prominent as a scholar and well known for his charity. Because of his unassuming disposition he is always spoken of as "he'anaw" = "the modest...
NAḤMANI, SAMSON ḤAYYIM BEN NAḤMAN RAPHAEL – Italian Talmudist; flourished about the latter half of the eighteenth century. He was the pupil of Ephraim Cohen of Ostrog, rabbi of Modena; of Abi'ad Sar-Shalom Basilla, rabbi of Mantua; and, in Cabala, of Benjamin Alexander...
NAḤMIAS (NAAMIAS, NEHMIAS) – One of the most ancient and prominent Jewish families of Toledo. The oldest member known is Joseph Naḥmias, son-in-law of Joshua ben Isaac ibn Saidum, who was living in 1112. In 1211 another of the same name is met with in the...
NAḤMIAS (NAAMIAS, NEHMIAS) – One of the most ancient and prominent Jewish families of Toledo. The oldest member known is Joseph Naḥmias, son-in-law of Joshua ben Isaac ibn Saidum, who was living in 1112. In 1211 another of the same name is met with in the...
NAḤMIAS (NAAMIAS, NEHMIAS) – One of the most ancient and prominent Jewish families of Toledo. The oldest member known is Joseph Naḥmias, son-in-law of Joshua ben Isaac ibn Saidum, who was living in 1112. In 1211 another of the same name is met with in the...
NAḤMOLI, JOSEPH – Talmudist and rabbi of Larissa in the eighteenth century; father-in-law of Isaac ibn Shangi (author of "Be'er Yiẓḥaḳ," on the Pentateuch), and pupil of Ḥayyim Abulafia.He wrote: "Eshel ha-Neḥalim" (Smyrna, n.d.), containing...
NATHAN BEN JOEL FALAQUERA (PALAQUERA) – Spanish physician of the latter half of the thirteenth century; perhaps identical with Nathan of Montpellier, the teacher of the unknown author of the "Sefer ha-Yashar." He was the son of a physician, and early began the study...
NIZZA, SOLOMON BEN ISAIAH BEN ELIEZER ḤAYYIM – Rabbi of Venice in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; equally prominent as sage, Talmudist, and liturgical poet. His father, Isaiah, whom he succeeded, was the author of "Derek Yashar" (Venice, 1633), on ethics, and of...
SAMARA – Babylonian river near which tradition has located Ezra's tomb. Many legends cluster round this sacred spot; and in former times both Jews and Mohammedans used to make pilgrimages thither for prayer and to procure relies. It was...