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M. Grunwald, Ph.D.

Rabbi, Israelitische Kultus-Gemeinde, Vienna; Editor of the "Mitteilungen zur Jüdischen Volkskunde"; Vienna, Austria.

Contributions:
ANT IN JEWISH LITERATURE, THE – In Hebrew , so also in Arabic naml (etymology doubtful); in Aramaic (Targum, Peshito, and Talmud) , which has its equivalent in the Arabic sumsum, simsim, and is used especially of the small red Ant, distinguished from...
BIBLIOMANCY – For Protective Purposes. The use of the Bible for magic or superstitious purposes. The practise of employing sacred books, or words and verses thereof, for divination or for magic cures is universal alike among pagans and...
BOHEMIA – Crown land in the northernmost part of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The history of the first settlement of Jews in Bohemia is wrapped in legend. The oldest Jewish sources designate Bohemia as "Ereẓ Kena'an," that is, "Slavonia"...
CHILDBIRTH – The following are some of the Biblical and Talmudical details touching the birth of children:In the Bible. The child might be brought into the world with or without a midwife (Gen. xxxviii. 28; Ex. i. 15 et seq.; compare Mishnah...
COMMUNITY, ORGANIZATION OF – Ancient and Medieval: At the beginning of the common era there were Jewish communities at Alexandria, Rome, Salamis, Corinth, Athens, Delos, etc.; at Antioch (in Pisidia), Iconium, Smyrna, Ephesus, and other well-known cities on...
CRADLE SONGS, JUDÆO-GERMAN – Songs written as lullabies; these exist in great variety and profusion among the Jews speaking Judæo-German or Yiddish, and among them may be quoted the following:For boys:Inter Yankeles wigeleBehind Jankele's cradleShteit a...
ELIJAH'S CHAIR – At every circumcision Elijah, "the angel of the covenant," as he is called in Malachi (iii. 1), is supposed to be seated at the right hand of the sandek, upon a chair richly carved and ornamented with embroideries ("kisse shel...
ELLINGER (ELLINGEN), NATHAN – German rabbi; born 1772; died July 4, 1839, at Bingen-on-the-Rhine. According to the archives of Mayence, he and his brother Löb were rabbis of Mayence in 1808. From 1809 to 1821 Nathan was director of the Talmud school at...
GAMES AND SPORTS – Playful methods of enjoying leisure moments. The ancient Hebrews practised target-shooting with arrows (I Sam. xx. 20; Job xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12; comp. also Bacher in "R. E. J." xxvi. 63), or with slings and stones (Judges xx....
HAND – Traces of the custom of tattooing are found in the expression "to inscribe the hands for some one (Isa. xliv. 5, xlix. 16; comp. Gal. vi. 17; see Grunwald, "Cultur- und Kunstgesch. Entwicklung der Schriftzeichen," p. 1). The...
JUDAH LÖW (LÖB, LIWA) BEN BEZALEEL – Austrian Talmudist and mathematician; born aboutthe second decade of the sixteenth century in Posen, whither his family had gone from Worms toward the end of the fifteenth century, probably in consequence of persecution; died at...
MARRIAGE CEREMONIES – Association of the sexes was much restricted among the Jews, and the Betrothal was generally brought about by a third person, often a professional match-maker ("shadkan"). The latter received a brokerage-fee fixed by law, as a...
OCCUPATIONS – The ancient Hebrews were farmers, fishermen, artisans, etc., very seldom merchants. Solomon's endeavors to stimulate commerce among them bore no lasting fruit. Outside of their country they were not always allowed to acquire...
PROVERBS – Wise, witty, and pithy maxims or aphorisms. Jewish proverbs are derived from the following sources: (1) Biblical collections, included in the canon; (2) Apocryphal collections, not included in the canon; (3) the Talmud; (4)...
PROVERBS – Wise, witty, and pithy maxims or aphorisms. Jewish proverbs are derived from the following sources: (1) Biblical collections, included in the canon; (2) Apocryphal collections, not included in the canon; (3) the Talmud; (4)...