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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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H. Guttenstein,

New York City.

Contributions:
CALMER, LIEFMANN – Baron of Picquigny, an important personage in French Jewry of the eighteenth century; born in Aurich, Hanover, in 1711; died in Paris Dec. 17, 1784. His full synagogal name was Moses Eliezer Lipmann ben Kalonymus—in German,...
CASTRO, DE, FAMILY – The various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. Soon after the establishment of the Inquisition, members of the family emigrated to Bordeaux, Bayonne, Hamburg, and other cities in the Netherlands,...
COAT OF ARMS – Armorial bearings of families to which the right to bear arms has been granted by the recognized heraldic authorities. This right is in a heraldic sense distinctly feudal in character; and it seems to have originated, toward the...
COSTA, DA, PEDIGREE – The family of Da Costa is probably identical with that of the Mendez da Costa. It has even been suggested that an early Mendes called himself Mendez da Costa ("Mendes of the Coast"). The arms of the two families both in England...
DISRAELI PEDIGREE – The following is a genealogical tree of the Disraeli family: Lord Beaconsfield could trace his ancestry only back to his grandfather of the same name, who arrived in England from Venice in 1759 (though he himself dated his...
EGER – A family established for a long time at Halberstadt, Germany. It appears to have been originally known by the name of "Gins" or "Ginsmann," by which appellation the first two definitely authenticated members, Mayer and David,...
EISENSTADT – Polish family which, when the Jews were compelled to adopt family names, selected the name of Eisenstadt, a town in Hungary, where some of the family became rabbis.Abigdor Eisenstadt, or Abigdor Sofer (ben Moses): Died 24th of...
EISENSTADT – Polish family which, when the Jews were compelled to adopt family names, selected the name of Eisenstadt, a town in Hungary, where some of the family became rabbis.Abigdor Eisenstadt, or Abigdor Sofer (ben Moses): Died 24th of...
EMBDEN (EMDEN) – A family deriving its name, perhaps, from Emden, Germany. Carl Adam Emden, privy councilor and high bailiff of Prince Salm-Salm, was ennobled in 1791. It is probable that Eleazar Solomon von Embden (who lived in London about...
GRADIS – Name of a family of prominent merchants in southern France, originally from Spain; flourished in Bordeaux in the eighteenth century. The following family tree indicates the relationship of the members of the great Bordeaux firm:...
KÖNIGSBERGER, LEO – German mathematician; born in Posen Oct. 15, 1837. He studied in Berlin (Ph.D. 1860), and was appointed instructor in mathematics and physics at the Military Academy, Berlin, in 1861; in 1864 he was made assistant professor, in...
LOUSADA (OF PEAK HOUSE) – Name of a family that has held for many generations large possessions in Jamaica. A member of the family was created Duke de Lousada and Marquis di San Miniato. It is the only Jewish family that has held so exalted a title. Its...
STIEGLITZ, LUDWIG VON – Russian banker; born in Arolsen, Waldeck, Germany, in 1778; died at St. Petersburg March 18, 1843. He emigrated to Russia when a young man, was appointed court banker to the czar, and, after adopting Christianity, was raised to...