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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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I. George Dobsevage,

New York City.

Contributions:
BRAININ, RUBEN – Hebrew publicist and biographer; born in Russia in the last half of the nineteenth century; is now (1902) living in Berlin. At different times Brainin contributed to "Ha-Meliẓ," "Ha-Ẓefirah," "Ha-Maggid," and "Ha-Shiloaḥ." In...
COOKERY – Biblical Data: The preparation of the meal was in ancient times a very simple process. The principal articles of diet were bread and milk, to which were added, as supplementary dishes, fruits and vegetables (compare Baking and...
GOMPERS, SAMUEL – American labor-leader; born in London Jan. 27, 1850. At ten years of age he became a wage-earner, working in a shoe-factory; later he was apprenticed to a cigar-maker. In 1863 he emigrated to America, where a year later he...
HAFṬARAH – That portion of the Prophets read immediately after the reading of the Torah in the morning services on Sabbaths, feast-days, and the Ninth of Ab, and in the afternoon services on fast-days. The passage chosen usually contains...
HAMMERSTEIN, OSCAR – American theatrical manager; born at Berlin May 8, 1848, where he was educated. In March, 1863, he emigrated to America and settled in New York city, where he engaged in cigar-making. Turning to journalism, he became editor of...
HILLQUIT, MORRIS – American lawyer and socialist; born at Riga, Russia, Aug. 1, 1870, educated at the gymnasium of that town. He emigrated to the United States in 1887, studied law, and was admitted to the New York bar in 1893. In 1888 Hillquit...
HIRSCH, JACOB VON – German banker; grandfather of Maurice de Hirsch; born in 1764 at Königshofen, near Würzburg; died March 23, 1841, at Munich. Although in his youth he had received an exclusively Talmudic education, he later in life achieved the...
HIRSCH, JOSEPH VON – German banker; father of Maurice de Hirsch; born July 2, 1805, at Würzburg; died Dec. 9, 1885, at Munich. After completing his studies he entered his father's banking establishment, and in 1841, on the latter's death, succeeded...
HOFFMAN, CHARLES ISAIAH – American editor and communal worker; born at Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 3, 1864; educated at the University of Pennsylvania, at that of Cambridge, England, and at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Hoffman was the editor...
HYAMS, HENRY MICHAEL – American lawyer; born at Charleston, S. C., March 4, 1806, of English parents: died at New Orleans 1875; educated in Charleston and in New Orleans, to which latter city he went in 1828, together with Judah P. Benjamin, to whom...
ISAACS, SAMUEL HILLEL – American calendarer; born 1825 at Raczek, Poland; educated under Judah Bacharach, Moses Leib of Kutna, and others; emigrated to New York on June 30, 1847. During 1886 and 1887 he was principal of the Talmud Torah in New York....
ISLER, MEYER – German philologist; born Dec. 14, 1807, at Hamburg; died there Aug. 19, 1888; studied philology at the universities of Bonn and Berlin (Ph.D. 1830). Appointed registrar of the city library of Hamburg in 1832, he thenceforward...
ISRAEL, EDWARD – American arctic explorer; born July 1, 1859, at Kalamazoo, Mich.; died May 27, 1884; educated at the University of Ann Arbor, Mich. He joined the Signal Corps of the United States Army and became a sergeant. In 1881 Israel...
ITZIG – Wealthy German family which did much in the eighteenth century for the development of modern culture among the Jews.Babette Itzig: Born 1749; married Salomon; her daughter Leah became the wife of Abraham Mendelssohn and was the...
JOSEPH, JACOB – Russian-American rabbi; born at Krozhe, government of Kovno, Russia, 1848; died at New York July 28, 1902. He studied in the yeshibah at Volozhin under Hirsch Leib Berlin and Israel Salanter, and his aptness as a student won him...
KALISCH, PAUL – German singer; born at Berlin Nov. 6, 1855; son of David Kalisch, founder of the "Kladderadatsch." Kalisch was destined for an architeet's career, but at a gathering at the home of his brother-in-law Paul Lindau, where Kalisch...
KAPPER, SIEGFRIED – Austrian poet and physician; born at Smichow near Prague, March 21, 1821; died at Pisa June 7, 1879; educated at the gymnasium and University of Prague, and at the University of Vienna (Ph.D. 1847). Starting in life as a...
KLEIN, ADOLPH – German medical author; born at Merseburg-on-the-Saale May 18, 1829. He was educated at Leipsic (M.D. 1851), and practised medicine at Königsberg from 1859 to 1870. In the latter year he adopted a journalistic career, becoming...
LEIPZIGER, HENRY MARCUS – American educator; born at Manchester, England, Dec. 29, 1853; emigrated to New York in 1865; educated at the College of the City of New York (M.A. 1873) and at Columbia College (LL.B. 1875; Ph.D. 1878). Leipziger was a teacher...
LENGFELD, FELIX – American chemist; born at San Francisco Feb. 18, 1863; educated at the San Francisco College of Pharmacy, the University of California, Johns Hopkins University, and at Zurich, Liége, Munich, and Paris. Lengfeld has been fellow...
LEVY, JOSEPH LEONARD – American rabbi; born Nov. 24, 1865, in London; educated at Jews' College and University College (B.A.), London, at Bristol University, England, and at Western University of Pennsylvania (D.D.). Levy was rabbi of the Bristol...
MEMORIAL DATES – Jewish communities, as a rule, have taken no note of birthdays of any of their members and only in rare cases of the dates of death. One of these cases is the anniversary of the day on which Gedaliah was assassinated (3d...
MENDELSSOHN – German family rendered illustrious by the philosopher and the musician. It can not verify its ancestry further back than the father of the philosopher, though there is a family tradition that it is descended from Moses...
MONTEZINOS LIBRARY – Division of the library of the Portuguese Rabbinical Seminary 'Eẓ Ḥayyim at Amsterdam, Holland. It was bequeathed in 1889 by D. R. Montezinos (b. Dec. 6, 1829), the well-known bibliophile of that city, and was dedicated on April...
MORAIS, HENRY SAMUEL – American writer and minister; born May 13, 1860, at Philadelphia, Pa.; educated at private and public schools of that city. He received his religious instruction from his father, Sabato Morais. For about twelve years he was a...