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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Max Cohen,

Counselor at Law, New York City.

Contributions:
BACON, ROGER – English philosopher and scholar of the thirteenth century; born at Ilchester, England, about 1214; died about 1294. He studied at Oxford and spent some years in Paris, where he obtained the degree of doctor of theology. In 1250...
BEHREND, JACOB FRIEDRICH – German jurist; born at Berlin Sept. 13, 1833; finished his studies in his native city at the university. He became "Gerichtsassessor" in 1859; but, deciding upon a scholastic career, he became privat-docent at the Berlin...
BENSHEIM, SIMON – Member of the grandducal Oberrat (Upper House) of Baden; born at Mannheim Oct. 14, 1823; died there Oct. 26, 1898. Extremely active in congregational and philanthropic matters, he was annually elected by unanimous vote a member...
BERLIN, SAMUEL – German jurist; born at Bamberg Oct 11, 1807; died at Fürth Dec. 21, 1896. He was a son of Löb Berlin, of Bamberg, afterward "Landesrabbiner" at Cassel, and was educated at the University of Munich, where he obtained his LL.D....
BERNAYS, JACOB – German philologist; born at Hamburg Sept. 18, 1824; died at Bonn May 26, 1881. He was the eldest son of the ḥakam Isaac Bernays, who carefully guided his elementary education until he was sent, in 1844, to Bonn to attend the...
BERNHARDY, GOTTFRIED – German philologist and historian of literature; born at Landsberg in the Neumark, province of Brandenburg, March 20, 1800; died at Halle May 14, 1875. His father was a merchant who had been successful and prosperous, but who in...
BERNHEIM, ERNST – German historian; born at Hamburg Feb. 19, 1850. On completing his elementary and preparatory studies, he attended the universities of Berlin, Heidelberg, Strasburg, and Göttingen. It was from Strasburg that he received his...
BÖRNE, KARL LUDWIG – German political and literary writer; born May 6, 1786, at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died in Paris Feb. 12, 1837. The family name was Baruch, and he received the name of Loeb, both of which he afterward changed. Both his...
BORNSTEIN, ARTHUR – German author; born at Breslau March 23, 1867; studied at Breslau, Berlin, and Bern; and passed the state examination in Berlin in 1888. He adopted the profession of dental surgery, but devoted himself as well to literature. A...
BORNSTEIN, PAUL – German author; born in Berlin April 8, 1868; educated in and graduated from the university in that city, receiving the degree of doctor of philosophy. He has since lived in the German capital. His first published work was the...
BRESNITZ, HEINRICH – Austrian author and journalist; born at Czernowitz, Bukowina, Austria-Hungary, 1844. In 1867 he established in Vienna a periodical, "Der Osten," and in 1869 a political journal, "Der Patriot." From 1879 to 1886 he was the...
BURG, MENO – German military officer; was born in Berlin Oct. 9, 1789; died there Aug. 26, 1853. His father was in very poor circumstances, but his cousin, S. Sachs, had secured an official position as government building inspector, and...
COHN, GUSTAV – German economist; born Sept. 12, 1840, at Marienwerder, West Prussia. He studied at the universities of Berlin and Jena. During 1867 and 1868 he was the holder of a fellowship at the Royal Statistical Bureau of Berlin, and in...
DEL BANCO, MIRIAM – American authoress; born June 27, 1867, at New Orleans; daughter of Rabbi Max Del Banco, who died shortly after her birth. Her mother removed to St. Louis, in the public schools of which city the daughter was trained, displaying...
EBERTY, GEORGE FRIEDRICH FELIX – German jurist and author; born in Berlin Jan. 26,1812; died at Arnsdorf (Riesengebirge) July 7, 1884. He was educated at the universities of Berlin and Bonn. In 1849 he became privat-docent at the University of Breslau in...
GANS, EDUARD – German jurist; born at Berlin March 22, 1798; died there May 5, 1839. He was the son of the banker Abraham Gans, and received his early education at the Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster; in 1816 he entered the Berlin University to...
GODEFROI, MICHAEL H. – Dutch jurist and minister of justice; born at Amsterdam Jan. 13, 1814; died at Würzburg June 27, 1882. He devoted himself to the study of jurisprudence, and at a very early age secured employment under the state. When but...
GOLDSCHMIDT, LEVIN – German jurist; born at Danzig May 30, 1829; died at Wilhelmshöhe July 16, 1897. From 1847 to 1851 he pursued his studies at the universities of Berlin, Bonn, and Heidelberg, receiving his doctor's degree in 1851 from the...
GROSS, FERDINAND – Austrian writer; born in Vienna April 8, 1849; died at Kaltenleutgeben, near Vienna, Dec. 21, 1900. His ancestors lived in Italy; his father emigrated from Padua to Hungary, and went from there to Vienna. Ferdinand began his...
GRÜNHUT, KARL SAMUEL – Austrian jurist; born at Bur-St. Georgen, Hungary, Aug. 3, 1844. He became associate professor in the juridical faculty of the University of Vienna in 1872, after having published "Die Lehre von der Wechselbegebung nach...
JACOBY, JOHANN – German physician and statesman; born at Königsberg, Prussia, May 1, 1805; died there March 6, 1877. The son of a well-to-do merchant, after attending the Königsberg Collegium Fredericianum, in 1823 he entered the university in...
KALISCH, DAVID – German playwright and humorist; born at Breslau Feb. 23, 1820; died at Berlin Aug. 21, 1872. His infancy and early childhood were spent in a home of comfort and culture; but when he was only seven years old his father died,...
LANDESMANN, HEINRICH – Austrian poet and philosophical writer; born at Nikolsburg Aug. 9, 1821; died at Brünn Dec. 4, 1902. From his earliest childhood he was very sickly; at the age of fifteen his sight and hearing were almost completely destroyed;...
LANDSBERGER, HUGO – German novelist, dramatist, and editor; born at Berlin Aug. 25, 1861. His first production was "Der Neue Gott, Roman aus der Gegenwart," Dresden, 1891, which was followed by "Sünden," Berlin, 1891. His dramatic efforts thus far...
L'ARRONGE, ADOLF – German dramatist and theatrical manager; born in Hamburg March 8, 1838; son of Eduard Theodor l'Arronge (Aaron). He received a musical training at the conservatorium at Leipsic, and officiated later as conductor of the orchestra...