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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Max Cohen,

Counselor at Law, New York City.

Contributions:
LASSALLE, FERDINAND – The founder of Social Democracy; born in Breslau, Germany, April 11, 1825; died Aug. 31, 1864, in Geneva. His father, Heymann Lassel, was a prosperous silk-merchant, and desired his son to pursue a similar calling. Lassalle even...
LEBRECHT, FÜRCHTEGOTT – German educator; born at Memmelbach, Bavaria, Nov. 16, 1800; died at Berlin, Sept. 1, 1876. He studied at Fürth, and later at Presburg under Moses Sofer, devoting himself mainly to the Talmud and to the Hebrew literature of the...
LEDERER, JOACHIM K. – Austrian play-wright; born at Prague Aug. 28, 1808; died at Dresden July 31, 1876. Lederer received only a meager education under a private tutor. He began the study of medicine, but after a year's experience discarded it for...
LEHMANN, EMIL – German jurist; born at Dresden Feb. 2, 1829; died there Feb. 25, 1898; son of the merchant Bonnier Lehmann. He attended the Israelitische Gemeindeschule and the Kreuzschule in Dresden, and then (1848) went to Leipsic and devoted...
LEHMANN, JOSEPH – German journalist; born at Glogau Dec. 28, 1801; died at Berlin Feb. 19, 1873. At the age of fifteen he found his way to Berlin, and secured a position as office-boy in a banking-house. He studied assiduously, and strove to gain...
LEHMANN, MARCUS (MEYER) – German rabbi; born Dec. 29, 1831, at Verden, Hanover; died at Mayence April 14, 1890. After graduating from the gymnasium, he studied Hebrew at Halberstadt under Israel Hildesheimer. He then went to Berlin University, and thence...
LESSER, LUDWIG – German poet, editor, and publicist; born at Rathenow, province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Dec. 7, 1802; died at Berlin Dec. 2, 1867. When very young he went to Berlin, andbecame a regular contributor to most of the literary...
LESSMANN, DANIEL – German historian and poet; born at Soldin, Neumark, Jan. 18, 1784; committed suicide at a place between Kropstadt and Wittenberg Sept. 2, 1831. He attended the Joachimsthal'sche Gymnasium in Berlin, and had begun the study of...
LEVI, RAPHAEL – German mathematician; died May 17, 1779, in Hanover, whither his father, Jacob Joseph Levi, a poor pedler, had gone with him, then a boy of eight years, and had died a few days after their arrival. The orphan lad was provided...
LEVY, MEYER – German jurist; born in Wollstein, province of Posen, Jan. 17, 1833; died in Berlin Oct. 18, 1896. After practising as an assessor in Berlin, he received the appointment of "Rechts-Anwalt" in Fraustadt, where he at once began his...
LOEWE, LUDWIG – German manufacturer, philanthropist, and member of the Reichstag; born at Heiligenstadt Nov. 27, 1837; died at Berlin Sept. 11, 1886. The son of a poor teacher, he attended the gymnasium in his native city, and then went to...
MAKOWER, HERMANN – German jurist; born at Santomischel, Posen, March 8, 1830; died at Berlin April 1, 1898. His father, recognizing the inadequate educational facilities of the town, sent him, alone and almost penniless, at the age of nine, to win...
MARCUS, BRENTGEN – First Jewish court singer in Germany; flourished toward the end of the seventeenth century. She lived with her father, Isaac Marcus, in the town of Wesel in Brandenburg, where, in 1690, Frederick of Brandenburg, afterward King...
MARX, KARL – German socialistic leader and political economist; born at Treves May 5, 1818; died in London March 14, 1883. His father, a practising attorney at the Landgericht, adopted Christianity in 1824. Marx attended the gymnasium at...
MOSENTHAL, SOLOMON HERMANN VON – Austrian dramatist and poet; born at Cassel, Hesse-Nassau, Germany, Jan. 14, 1821; died at Vienna Feb. 17, 1877. He attended the gymnasium at Cassel and the Polytechnicum in Carlsruhe. He soon withdrew, however, and in 1841 went...
MUHR, ABRAHAM – German philanthropist; born at Berlin April 7, 1781; died at Breslau June 12, 1847. In addition to a thorough course in Hebrew literature, he received a substantial secular education. In 1806 he went to Plesse, Prussian Silesia,...
NEANDER, JOHANN AUGUST WILHELM – German Church historian; born at Göttingen Jan. 17, 1789; died at Berlin July 14, 1850. Prior to his baptism his name was "David Mendel," and on his mother's side he was related to Moses Mendelssohn. He attended the gymnasium at...
NEURATH, WILHELM – Austrian economist; born at St. Georgen May 31, 1840. After winning his doctor's degree he became privat-docent at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna, and afterward associate professor at the Hochschule für Bodenkultur. He...
NORDAU, MAX (SIMON) – Settles in Paris. Austrian litterateur and philosopher; born in Budapest July 29, 1849.His parents were very poor. His father, Gabriel Südfeld, had been a rabbi in Prussia, but went to Budapest as a private teacher. Max received...
OPPENHEIM, HEINRICH BERNHARD – German jurist, economist, and deputy; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main July 20, 1819; died at Berlin March 29, 1880. He was the son of a wealthy jeweler, and the grandson of Gumpel, the rich Hamburg banker. He studied law at...
PHILIPPSON – German family made distinguished by Ludwig Philippson, the founder of the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums"; it traces its descent back to Jacob Joshua, author of "Pene Yehoshua'," 1754.Alfred Philippson: German geologist;...
PRINGSHEIM, NATHANIEL – German botanist; born at Wziesko, Oberschlesien, Nov. 30,1823; died at Berlin Oct. 6, 1894. He was educated at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium at Breslau, and at Leipsic, Berlin (Ph.D. 1848), and Paris, in which latter two cities he...
RUBO, JULIUS – German jurist; born at Halberstadt June 9, 1794; died at Berlin March 13, 1866. He attended the gymnasium in Halberstadt, and, after serving as a volunteer in the war with Napoleon, he studied jurisprudence at the universities...
SINGER, PAUL – German Social Democrat and deputy; born in Berlin Jan. 16, 1844. After having attended the real-school of his native city he entered upon a commercial career, and in 1869 established a cloak-factory, with his brother as partner....
STAHL, FRIEDRICH JULIUS – German jurist and publicist; born at Munich Jan. 16, 1802; died at Brückenau Aug. 10, 1861. In his eighteenth year he took the examination for the position of teacher at the Munich gymnasium, but was confronted by the usual...