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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Meyer Kayserling,

(deceased), Late Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary.

Contributions:
ARBUES, PEDRO – Spanish canon and inquisitor; called by certain Jews "the creature and darling of Torquemada"; born about 1441 at Epila, Aragon (hence sometimes styled "master of Epila"); died Sept. 17, 1485. He was appointed canon of Saragossa...
ARDIT – The name of a family that emigrated from Aragon to Turkey, where their descendants still live. The following members are known:1. Abraham Ardit: Lived in 1483 at Barcelona.2. Ephraim Ardit: Lived in Smyrna; wrote, under the...
ARUVAS (AROVAS), ISAAC – Rabbi and author; son of R. Hananiah Aruvas; lived in the seventeenth century. He filled the office of rabbi in several African communities, and later settled in Venice. He is the author of "Emet we-Emunah" (Truth and Faith), a...
ARUVAS, MOSES BEN JOSEPH – A physician and translator; lived in Cyprus and Damascus in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. He translated Aristotle's "Theology," a pseudepigraphic work, from the Arabic into Italian. This translation, made at the request...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATHIAS – A Spanish family distinguished by the great number of its scholars and promoters of learning. The name is spelled in Hebrew variously, , (from an Arabic word meaning "present," "gift"). As early as the sixteenth century some of...
ATTAR, IBN – A family name among the Sephardic Jews. In Arabic the word "attar" means "apothecary" or "spice-dealer"; but it is found Hebraized, and applied in its original sense as an epithet, as early as 1150 (Harkavy, "Meassef Niddaḥim,"...
AVIGDOR, JACOB – Chief rabbi ("ḥakam bashi") at Constantinople from 1860 to 1863; born 1794; died 1874. He was a capable Talmudist and conversant with several foreign languages. Avigdor was instrumental in organizing several institutions in the...
AVIGDOR, JULES D' – Banker, and member of the Piedmont Parliament; born in Nice; died at Paris February, 1856. He was a grandson of Isaac Samuel d'Avigdor, secretary of the Paris Sanhedrin; See Sanhedrin. He was the first Jew elected by his...
AVILA – Town in Old Castile, fifteen miles from Madrid. In the Middle Ages it was one of the wealthiest and most flourishing cities of Spain. Jews have resided there since 1085, when they dwelt in the street called "Calle de Lomo" (now...
AZBAN, MORDECAI BEN ISAAC – Cabalist and rabbi in Leghorn; born in the interior of Africa; died at Jerusalem 1740. At Leghorn he had a controversy with Abraham Ḥayyim Rodriguez, which is printed in the latter's collection of decisions, entitled "Oraḥ...
AZEVEDO, DANIEL COHEN D' – akam in Amsterdam; died in 1823; son and successor of the Ḥakam David Cohen d'Azevedo. He is the author of a sermon—"Sermão Heroico pregado no K. K. de Talmud Torah en Amsterdam," Aug. 3, 1809 (eulogistic sermon, preached in the...
AZEVEDO, DAVID COHEN D' – akam of Amsterdam in the eighteenth century; died in 1792. He devoted himself to rabbinical studies and was elected Ḥakam in Amsterdam in 1782. He published a sermon entitled "Triumphos da Virtude: Sermão á Occasião do Natalicio...
AZEVEDO, DAVID SALOM D' – Diplomat, of the seventeenth century; died 1699. He was minister resident at Amsterdam of the dey of Algeria, and in that capacity negotiated a commercial treaty with the Netherlands. He was also an energetic member of the...
AZEVEDO, FRANCISCO D' – Portuguese Marano of the seventeenth century. He was sent in 1673 to Rome to implore the papal curia to curb the inhumanity of the Inquisition. Well supplied with money, and seconded by the Jesuits—who were not in sympathy with...
AZEVEDO, MOSES COHEN D' – Haham of London; son of Daniel Cohen d'Azevedo; born in Amsterdam about 1720; died in 1784. He succeeded, in 1761, Moses Gomez da Mesquitta, his father-in-law, as haham (Ḥakam) of the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of...
AZORES – Group of islands in the Atlantic ocean, northwest of Africa, belonging to Portugal. It was a place of refuge for the Jews expelled from that country. At present Ponta Delgada, the capital of the island of São Miguel, Fayal,...
BACH, JOSEPH – Hungarian rabbi; born in 1784; died at Budapest Feb. 3, 1866. After I. N. Mannheimer, he was the first German preacher of a Jewish congregation in Austria-Hungary. At Alt-Ofen, his birthplace, he began to ground himself early in...
BADIS (Muzaffar Nasir) – Oldest son of King Habus of Granada, whom he succeeded in 1038. In a struggle with the Berbers, who wished to make his younger brother, Bologguin, king, he was supported by the Arabs and by his vizier, Samuel ibn Nagdela. After...
BAENA, FRANCISCO DE – Spanish poet of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, brother of Juan Alfonso de Baena, and secretary to the governor Diego de Ribera. One of his poems appears in his brother's "Cancionero." Recent investigation points to the...
BAENA, JUAN ALFONSO DE – Spanish troubadour in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; born at Baena, Cordova. He was "escribano escribiente" (notarial secretary) at the court of John II. Under the title "Cancionero del Judino Juan Alfonso de Baena," he...
BAEZA – City in the province of Jaen, Spain, which, as early as the Moorish rule, had a considerable Jewish community that suffered greatly during the war between Castile and Mohammed al-Naṣir in 1212. In 1391 there was great slaughter...
BAHAMONTE, BENITO LOPEZ – Spanish Christian; author of a Hebrew grammar for school use, entitled, "Gramatica de la Lengua Hebraica, Escrita en Castellano," Madrid, 1818 (Kayserling, "Bibliotheca Española," p. 16).T. M. K.