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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
ATLANTA – Since 1868 capital of the State of Georgia in the United States. The city was captured and burned by the United States troops in 1864, and all of the civic and congregational records were destroyed.From the best tradition...
ATTAH HORE'TA – The first of a series of versicles, seventeen in number, chanted on the Rejoicing of the Law in the Northern ritual, before the scrolls are taken from the Ark for the "haḳḳafot" or processional circuits. The chant resembles a...
AUB, JOSEPH – Oculist; born in 1846; died May 13, 1888, at Cincinnati, O. He attended the Talmud Yelodim Institute and the public schools, and later entered the Ohio Medical College, from which institution he was graduated in 1866. He then...
AUGUSTA – The capital of Richmond county, Georgia, received its first Jewish settlers about 1825, when a Mr. Florence arrived with his wife. About a year later, Isaac and Jacob Moise and Isaac Hendricks and his wife came there from...
AZ SHESH MEOT – A poem of three stanzas by R. Elias Priscus, introduced in the northern liturgy at the conclusion of the piyyuṭim in the Additional Service on the Feast of Weeks. A paraphrase is given below of the two melodies associated with...
BA'AL HA-BAYIT – In more modern usage, the constituent members of a congregation as contrasted with the "toshabim" (transient members or strangers). The Ba'ale Battim consist of those members who pay over a certain amount for their seats in the...
BAAL KORÉ – Term applied to the person who reads the weekly portion from the Pentateuch—usually the ḥazan, though not necessarily so (see Cantillation; Ḥazzan; Music, Synagogal; compare Dembitz, "Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home," pp....
BA'AL TOḲEA' – Term applied to the person who blows the Shofar.A. F. L. C.
BADGE – Mark placed on the dress of Jews to distinguish them from others. This was made a general order of Christendom at the fourth Lateran Council of 1215. At the instigation of Innocent III., the decision of the Council ordered the...
BADḤAN – A merrymaker, professional jester, whose business it is to entertain the guests at a marriage-feast with drollery, riddles, and anecdotes. Whether they existed in Talmudic times is not certain. Two men are reported to have...
BAER, HERMAN – American author; born of Jewish parents at Herxheim, Germany, Jan. 29, 1830; died at Charleston, S. C., Jan. 2, 1901. He emigrated to America when a lad of seventeen, and settled in Charleston, where he obtained employment as...
BAHIA – A city on the eastern coast of Brazil founded by the Portuguese in 1549. Its official name became Cidade do San Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos (The City of the Holy Savior in All Saints' Bay).Although the year 1624 is...
BALTIMORE – Port of entry and principal city of the state of Maryland, situated on an estuary of the Patapsco river about 12 miles from Chesapeake bay.It can not be determined when Jews first settled in Baltimore. There were none among the...
BAR SHALMON – Legendary son-in-law of Ashmedai, king of the demons. Bar Shalmon, the scholarly and pious son of a rich merchant who had accumulated great wealth through maritime ventures, promised his father under oath, when the latter was on...
BARBADOS – First Settlement of Jews. Island of the British West Indies in the Windward Group; colonized in 1625. It is probable that Jews were among the earliest settlers on this island. The statement is made by Sir Robert H. Schomburgk...
BARCHES – Judίo-German for an oblong loaf of twisted bread, called in some countries also "Taatscher" or "Datscher." Both names are by popular etymology wittily applied to the words "birkat" (blessing) and "ta'ashir" (maketh rich) in the...
BARSIMSON, JACOB – One of the earliest Jewish settlers at New Amsterdam (New York). He arrived at that port on the ship "Pear Tree" July 8, 1654, it is believed from Holland, which country he seems to have left in company with a coreligionist...
BARUCH, SIMON – Serves in the Civil War. American physician; born at Schwersenz, Prussia, July 29, 1840; educated at the Royal Gymnasium, Posen. Emigrating at an early age to America, he studied at the medical colleges of South Carolina and...
BATHS, BATHING – Symbolic Significance. The clean body as an index and exponent of a clean soul, and thus of an approximation to holiness, is so natural a conception in the human mind that the records of early Jewish legislation accept the...
BEARD – Biblical Data: The modern Oriental cultivates his Beard as the sign and ornament of manhood: he swears by his Beard, touching it. The sentiment seems to have been the same in Biblical times. According to the Egyptian and...
BELASCO, DAVID – American dramatist; born in San Francisco in 1858 of English parents. He is of the same family as the English actor known on the stage as David James. Belasco began his dramatic work in early youth. His boyhood was passed in...
BELLS – The use of Bells for summoning seems to have arisen in the Far East, and was not customary in countries bordering the Mediterranean until late Roman times (Sittl, "Archäologie der Kunst," p. 246). Small disks, however, were...
BEMOẒA'E MENUḤAH – The "pizmon" of the "seliḥot" on the first Sunday in the octave preceding the New-Year, and therefore honored with a special melody. The first verse of the hymn is also chanted in some German congregations (Minhag Ashkenaz) in...
BENEDICTIONS – Blessings, or prayers of thanksgiving and praise, recited either during divine service or on special occasions. They were, according to rabbinical tradition (Ber. 33a), instituted and formulated by the founders of the synagogue,...
BENJAMIN, JUDAH PHILIP – American statesman and lawyer; born at St. Croix, West Indies, in 1811; died in Paris, May 6, 1884. His parents were English, Jews who, some years before his birth, had removed from London to St. Croix, then a British island, in...