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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
BERAḤ DODI – Three piyyuṭim forming the Ge'ullah in the morning service of the first two days of Passover, and of Saturday between the first and the last days of this feast ( ). Each of these piyyuṭim begins with the initial phrase of Cant....
BERENSON, BERNHARD – Art critic and historian; born at Wilna, Russia, June 26, 1865. He was educated in America, and in 1887 was graduated at Harvard. For some time Berenson has been in Italy investigating Italian art, and he is regarded as one of...
BERKOWITZ, HENRY – American rabbi; born at Pittsburg, Pa., March 18, 1857. He was educated at the Central High School of his native city, at Cornell University, and at the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, O. Berkowitz has held the position of...
BERLINER, EMIL – American inventor; born in Hanover, Germany May 20, 1851. He was educated at the public schools of his native place and at the Samson Schule, Wolfenbüttel, whence he was graduated in 1865. In 1870 he emigrated to America,...
BERNAL, MAESTRO – A Marano, ship-physician on the first voyage of Columbus to America. He had lived in Tortosa and had undergone public penance in October, 1490, as an adherent of Judaism. Columbus, by his arrogant conduct, aroused the enmity of...
BERND, JULIUS D. – American merchant and philanthropist; born in 1830; died at Pittsburg, Pa., Nov. 30, 1892. Bernd was a successful business man and highly esteemed by his mercantile associates in Pittsburg. He was a member of the chamber of...
BERNHEIM, ABRAM C. – American lawyer; born at New York city Feb. 1, 1866; died there July 24, 1895. Bernheim was educated in public schools of his native city and later in the Columbia College, subsequently taking a course of instruction at the...
BERNSTEIN, JOSEPH ("JOE") – American pugilist; born in November, 1877, in New York city. He first appeared in the ring in 1894, during which year he gained no less than five victories. In 1895 he won four fights and drew two, thus establishing himself as a...
BESCHREIEN – A Judæo-German word for lauding a person or thing to such an extent as to cause him or it to be harmed by malevolent spirits. This superstitious belief is of old German or Teutonic origin. Grimm ("Deutsche Mythologie," ii. 864)...
BESSELS, EMIL – German-American Arctic explorer and naturalist; born at Heidelberg June 2, 1847; died at Stuttgart March 30, 1888. At the university of his native place he studied medicine and zoology. In 1869, under the encouragement of...
BETTELHEIM – Name of a Hungarian family. The first bearer of it is said to have lived toward the second half of the eighteenth century, in Presburg. To account for its origin the following episode is related in the family records: Costumes...
BIEN, JULIUS – American lithographer; son of Emanuel M., ḥazan, lecturer, and lithographer; born at Naumburg, near Cassel, Hesse-Nassau, Sept. 27, 1826. He was educated at the Academy of Fine Arts, Cassel, and at Städel's Institute,...
BIRMINGHAM, ALA. – Capital of Jefferson county, Alabama, founded in 1871. The first congregation, Emanu-El, was organized in 1882; the corner-stone of its building being laid in July, 1886, and the building dedicated in 1889. The rabbis of the...
BIRTHDAY – There are no positive data in the Bible or in rabbinical literature concerning birthday festivals among the ancient Jews. This silence on the subject is, however, no warrant for the conclusion that the Jews altogether abstained...
BLAUSTEIN, DAVID – Educator; born May 5, 1866, at Lida, near Wilna, Russia. He received his first education in Hebrew in the ḥeder and yeshibah of his native town; went at the age of eighteen to Prussia, where he studied Hebrew and rabbinical...
BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE – Professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, February 23, 1855; emigrated to America in 1867. He studied at Chicago and Furman, (S. C.)...
BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNY – American pianist; sister of Maurice Bloomfield; born at Bielitz, Austrian Silesia, July 16, 1866. In 1868 her parents settled in Chicago, Ill., and there she received her first instruction in piano from Bernhard Ziehn and Carl...
BLUMENBERG, LEOPOLD – American soldier; born in the province of Brandenburg, Prussia, Sept. 28, 1827; died at Baltimore Aug. 12, 1876. He was the son of Abraham and Sophia Blumenberg, and the twenty-first of a family of twenty-two children. Soon...
BLUMENBERG, MARC A. – American musical critic and editor; born at Baltimore, Md., May 21, 1851; educated in the public schools of that city, and later at the College of Loyola. After a thorough course in the various branches of music, he became...
BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH – American communal worker; born in Munich, Germany, Dec. 1, 1834; died in New York March 2, 1901. In 1839 he went to the United States with his parents, and in 1854 entered business at Mariposa, Cal., remaining there for five...
B'NAI B'RITH – The largest and oldest Jewish fraternal organization. It has (1902) a membership of about 30,000, divided into more than 330 lodges and 10 grand lodges, distributed over the United States, Germany, Rumania, Austria-Hungary,...
BONDI, JONAS – American rabbi; born at Dresden, Saxony, July 9, 1804; died at New York March 11, 1874. He was educated at the University of Prague and in the theological circles of that city. He was president of the synagogue of his native...
BOROFSKY, SAMUEL HYMAN – Born at Wolkovyshki, government of Suvalki, Russian Poland, April, 1865. He was educated in the schools of his native place, and afterward in the Jews' Free School at Manchester, England, to which place he had been taken in...
BOSTON – Capital and chief city of the state of Massachusetts in the United States.Nothing definite is known of Jews in Boston prior to 1842. In that year there was established the first congregation, whose founder and first president...
BRAZIL – The largest of the South American states, extending from lat. 5° N. to 33° 45' S., long. 35° to 74° W., with an area of 3,209,878 square miles. It was discovered by Vincente Yanez Pinzon in 1499, and independently in 1500 by...