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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
BRIDEGROOM OF THE LAW (Ḥatan Torah) – The somewhat poetic designation of Bridegrooms of the Law and of Genesis are given to the persons called up in the synagogue to the reading of the chapters ending and beginning the Pentateuch respectively (Deut. xxxiii....
BRUCKMAN, HENRIETTA – Founder of the first Jewish women's lodge in America; born in Bohemia April, 1810; died in New York city April, 1888. She married Dr. Philip Bruckman, and, about the year 1842, came with him to the United States, settling in New...
BRUNNER, ARNOLD WILLIAM – American architect; the son of William Brunner and Isabelle Solomon; was born in New York city Sept. 25, 1857. He was educated in Manchester, England, and in New York, and is a graduate of the special architectural course in the...
BUFFALO – The second city in New York state. Its first connection with the history of the Jews occurred in 1825, when Mordecai M. Noah laid the corner-stone of his projected city of Ararat in one of its churches.Though a flourishing city...
BUSH (BUSCH), ISIDOR – Litterateur, publicist, and viticulturalist; born in Prague, Bohemia, Jan. 15, 1822; died in St. Louis, Mo., Aug. 5, 1898. His maternal great-grandfather was Israel Hönig, Edler von Hönigsberg, the first Jew raised to nobility...
BUSH, LEWIS – American soldier; born in Philadelphia; died 1777; member of the well-known Bush family, Jewish merchants of Philadelphia. He received the commission of first lieutenant of the Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion Jan. 9, 1776, and was...
BUSH, SOLOMON – American soldier; born in Philadelphia; son of Matthias Bush, one of the signers of the non-importation agreement (Oct. 25, 1765).Solomon Bush was an officer in the Pennsylvania militia, 1777-87. On July 5, 1777, he was...
CAHAN, ABRAHAM – Russian-American novelist and labor leader; born in Podberezhye, government of Wilna, July 7, 1860. His grandfather was a rabbi and preacher in Vidz, government of Vitebsk; and his father was a teacher of Hebrew and Talmud. The...
CALENDAR, HISTORY OF – The history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods—the Biblical, the Talmudic, and the post-Talmudic. The first rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon, the second on observation and reckoning,...
CALENDAR – A systematic arrangement of the days of the year. The Jewish calendar reckons the days from evening to evening, in accordance with the order observed in the Biblical account of the Creation, "And there was evening and there was...
CALIFORNIA – Early Communities. One of the United States of America on the Pacific coast. There exists no authenticated record of the activities of Jews in California prior to 1849. During that year, attracted by the discoveries of gold,...
CANADA – A federation of provinces in British North America. The earliest authentic records of the Jews in Canada go back to the period when England and France were engaged in their final contest for the mastery of the northern part of...
CANTILLATION – Mode of intonation used in public recital of prayers and Holy Scripture. The infinite gradations of tone in ordinary speech serve to bring home to the listener the interrelation and coordination of the words used by the speaker....
CANTOR, JACOB A. – American lawyer and politician; born in New York city Dec. 6, 1854; grandson of Agil Hanau, cantor of Dukes Place Synagogue, London. Cantor is an LL.B. of the University of New York. He served as a member of the assembly of the...
CARABAJAL – The name of a family of Maranos in Mexico at the end of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth, all connected with Don Luis de Carabajal, governor of New Leon. Several members of the family suffered martyrdom...
CARNIVAL – Among the Romans, a period of gaiety during the weeks before Lent, in which the Jews were made to play a contemptuous part. While the carnival had existed from the earliest medieval period, its scope was considerably extended by...
CAYENNE – An island of South America, and a town of the same name situated on this island that lies at the mouth of the Cayenne or Oyaque river, in the Atlantic.A band of Jews settled in Dutch Guiana as early as 1644. They were chiefly...
CHARITY AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS – The Lord's Share. —Ancient and Medieval Times. Charity is kindness shown to the needy; Hebrew, "ẓedaḳah"="righteousness" (Deut. xxiv. 13; Isa. xxxii. 17; Prov. xiv. 34; Ps. cvi. 3; Dan. iv. 24); "gemilut ḥesed" or "gemilut...
CHARITY AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS – The Lord's Share. —Ancient and Medieval Times. Charity is kindness shown to the needy; Hebrew, "ẓedaḳah"="righteousness" (Deut. xxiv. 13; Isa. xxxii. 17; Prov. xiv. 34; Ps. cvi. 3; Dan. iv. 24); "gemilut ḥesed" or "gemilut...
CHARLESTON, S. C. – Capital of the county of the same name, and chief city of the state of South Carolina in the United States; founded in 1670. The colony of South Carolina was originally governed under an elaborate charter drawn up in 1669 by the...
CHAUTAUQUA SOCIETY, THE JEWISH – A society formed in the United States for "the dissemination of knowledge of the Jewish religion by fostering the study of its history and literature,giving popular courses of instruction, issuing publications, establishing...
CHICAGO – Capital of Cook county, Illinois; the second largest city of the United States. It was incorporated as a city in 1837, and a year later the first Jewish settler, J. Gottlieb, arrived. Whence he came, and what his business was,...
CHILDBIRTH – The following are some of the Biblical and Talmudical details touching the birth of children:In the Bible. The child might be brought into the world with or without a midwife (Gen. xxxviii. 28; Ex. i. 15 et seq.; compare Mishnah...
CHILE – A republic of South America, bounded by Peru on the north, Bolivia and the Argentine Republic on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the south and west. Soon after the discovery of the American continent many Jews, professed and...
CHOYNSKI, JOSEPH – American heavyweight pugilist; born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 8, 1868. His first appearance in the prize-ring was in 1884, when he met and was defeated by J. J. Corbett in one round. He has encountered most of the prominent...