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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
CHUMACEIRO, ARON MENDES – akam of Curaçao, Dutch West Indies; born at Amsterdam Jan. 28, 1810; died there Sept. 18, 1882. He received the various rabbinical degrees (that of "morenu" in 1846) at the celebrated bet ha-midrash Ets Haim. In 1848 he was...
CINCINNATI – English Jews Settle. Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O.(From a photograph.)Capital of Hamilton county, Ohio, U. S. A. Its Jewish community is the oldest west of the Alleghany Mountains. In March, 1817, Joseph Jonas, a young...
CLEVELAND – Capital of Cuyahoga county, Ohio, U. S. A.; situated at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, and an important port on Lake Erie. The history of its Jewish community dates back to the year 1837, when a Bavarian, Simson Thorman,...
COHEN – A Baltimore family, originally from Bavaria, which has occupied an important place in the Jewish community and in municipal life since the early years of the nineteenth century. Its first representative in America was Jacob I....
COHEN, ALFRED J – American dramatic critic; born May 14, 1861, at Birmingham, England, where he attended King Edward's School. Then followed three years' study of dramatic art in Paris, after which (1887) Dale went to New York and began his...
COHEN, HENRY – American rabbi; born in London April 7, 1863. He was educated in London, and when only eighteen traveled in Africa as interpreter for a French legation. He was severely wounded during the Zulu war, while assisting in the repulse...
COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL – American ḥazzan; believed to have been born in the Barbary States; died in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept., 1811. Cohen lived in London, England, during the earlier years of his life. He is known to have been in Quebec, and also in New...
COHEN, JACOB DA SILVA SOLIS – Amerrican laryngologist; born in New York city Feb. 28, 1838. He was educated at the Central High School of Philadelphia, the Jefferson Medical College, and the University of Pennsylvania, receiving from the last named in 1860...
COHEN, JOSIAH – American lawyer and judge; born at Plymouth, England, Nov. 29, 1841, of a family long settled in Cornwall. He is a well-known lawyer and public man in the western part of the state of Pennsylvania, having been chairman of the...
COHEN, KATHERINE M. – American sculptor and painter; born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 18, 1859. She early evinced a taste for art, especially for modeling, and pursued her studies in the art schools of Philadelphia and New York, among her instructors...
COHEN, SOLOMON DA SILVA SOLIS – American physician; born at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept., 1857. Educated in the public schools, he graduated from the Central High School in 1872. From 1880 he studied medicine under his brother, Dr. J. da Silva Solis Cohen, and at...
COHN, ADOLPHE – American philologist; born at Paris May 29, 1851. He was graduated "bachelier ès lettres" from the University of Paris in 1868, and studied law, historical criticism, and philology at various institutions of higher learning in...
COLORADO – One of the United States of North America; bounded on the north by Wyoming and Nebraska; east by Nebraska and Kansas; south by Oklahoma and New Mexico; and west by Utah. It was admitted into the Union in 1876. The excitement...
COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER, AND THE JEWS – According to his own statement, Columbus had constant intercourse with Jews and Moors, with priests and laymen. He had personal relations with the mathematician Joseph Vecinho, physician-in-ordinary to King João II. of Portugal,...
COMMUNITY, ORGANIZATION OF – Ancient and Medieval: At the beginning of the common era there were Jewish communities at Alexandria, Rome, Salamis, Corinth, Athens, Delos, etc.; at Antioch (in Pisidia), Iconium, Smyrna, Ephesus, and other well-known cities on...
CONGRESS OF JEWISH WOMEN – One of the denominational congresses of the World's Parliament of Religions, held at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Ill., 1893. It was the first delegate body of Jewish women ever called together. There were present 93...
CONNECTICUT – One of the six New England States, and one of the thirteen original states of theUnion. The first mention of a Jew in Connecticut is apparently that of a certain "David the Jew" in the Colonial Records, under date of Nov. 9,...
CONSANGUINITY AMONG JEWS – Owing to their dispersion among populations professing creed different from their own, Jews have married ear relatives more frequently than the rest of the world. The marriage of first cousins and even of uncle and niece is...
CORO – A town in Venezuela, five miles from its seaport, La Vela de Coro, on the Caribbean Sea. It had, in the early days of the republic, many Jewish inhabitants, who came from the island of Curaçao, in the Dutch West Indies, about...
COSTUME – In Biblical Times: The general Hebrew designation for "costume" is "beged," applied indifferently to the garments of rich and poor, male and female. Other general designations are "keli," "lebush," "malbush," "tilboshet," and...
COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN – An organization which came into being as a result of the Congress of Jewish Women, one of the denominational congresses of the World's Parliament of Religions held at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. It was organized...
COWEN, ISRAEL – American lawyer and jurist; son of Bennett and Bertha Cowen; born in Houston, Texas, Dec. 12, 1861; received his early education in the public schools of Texas and California, and in a private school in New York city. He then...
COWEN, PHILIP – Jewish publisher and communal worker; born in New York city in 1853; educated in the public schools; was one of the founders and publisher of "The American Hebrew" (see American Hebrew), and has published several works of...
CREMATION – Biblical Data: The act of burning the dead. Cremation was not the prevailing custom among the ancient Hebrews, as it was among other contemporary nations (see J. Grimm, "Kleine Schriften," ii. 226). It was, however, not unknown...
CRESSON, WARDER – Religious enthusiast, and convert to Judaism. Born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 13, 1798; died in Jerusalem, Palestine, Nov. 6, 1860. He was directly descended from Pierre Cresson, one of the settlers of "Haarlem," N. Y., whose...