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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
EL NORA 'ALILAH – Ahymn attributed to Moses ibn Ezra, and chanted, in the Sephardic liturgy, before the commencement of the "Ne'ilah" or closing service of the Day of Atonement. It is sung to spirited tunes by English-speaking, Dutch, and Italian...
ELI ẒIYYON – The alphabetical hymn closing the series of "ḳinot" chanted in the northern rituals on the morning of the Fast of Ab, where it comes as a comparative relief to the series of dirges which precede it. The tune is not older than...
ELLINGER, MORITZ – American journalist; born in Fürth, Bavaria, Oct. 17, 1830. Emigrating to the United States in 1854, he became interested in in American municipal and communal affairs. In 1866 he received a congressional nomination. From 1873...
ELMIRA – City in the state of New York. The first settlement of Jews dates from about 1851. In 1860 twelve families organized a congregation under the name "Children of Israel," the services being conducted by Jacob Stahl. In 1885 Dr....
ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM – American rabbi; born at Eydtkuhnen, Germany, 1867; educated at Jews' College (1880-90), University College, London ("Hollier Scholar," 1886), and at London University (B.A., 1885). Elzas moved to Toronto, Canada (1890), where he...
EMET WE-YAẒẒIB – The initial words of the morning benediction following the Shema' and closing with the Ge'ullah ("Redemption"). Recited by the priests after the Shema' in the morning service in the Temple hall, "lishkat ha-gazit" (Tamid v. 1),...
EN KELOHENU – Ancient hymn, familiar from its occurrence in immediate succession to the Additional Service (Musaf) at festivals, and in many liturgies on Sabbaths also. To the four titles, "our God," "our Lord," "our King," "our Savior," are...
ERA – A historical period or reckoning of years, dating from some important event or fixed point of time. A striking event of a lasting effect is generally taken as a starting-point for a new era. The Bible contains a few instances of...
ERACH – A tax on property for communal purposes. The direct taxes which were levied by the Jewish congregations were mostly twofold: (1) on every family ("rashe bayit"), and (2) on property, both real estate and chattels, according to...
'ET SHA'ARE RAẒON – A long poem on the binding of Isaac upon the altar ('AḲedah), written by Judah ben Samuel ibn Abbas, a twelfth-century rabbi of Fez, for chanting before the sounding of the shofar, and so utilized in the Sephardic liturgy of the...
ETROG – The citron (κίτρον, κίτριον); fruit of a tree of the orange and lemon family. It is oblong in shape, and sometimes as much as six inches in length. The skin is thick, somewhat hard, fragrant, and covered with protuberances; the...
ETTING – Name of an American family, prominent in national and civic affairs, whose history is associated with the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, chiefly with the cities of Baltimore and Philadelphia, though some of its members are...
EXCHANGE, BILLS OF – Instruments, generally in duplicate, ordering persons to pay money in distant parts. According to Hallam ("Europe in the Middle Ages," iii. 339), Jews were the first to issue orders of this kind addressed to particular persons....
EZEKIEL, JACOB – Born in Philadelphia, Pa., June 28, 1812; died May 16, 1899. His parents, Ezekiel Jacob Ezekiel and Rebecca Israel, had come from Amsterdam, Holland, two years before his birth. He learned the bookbinding trade and worked at it...
EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB – American sculptor; born in Richmond, Va., Oct. 28, 1844; educated at the Virginia Military Institute, from which, after serving as a Confederate soldier in the Civil war, he was graduated. He then determined to devote himself to...
FAMILY VAULT – An exclusive burial-place for the members of a family. The desire of the ancient Hebrews to "lie with their fathers," and particularly the charge of Jacob to his sons to remove his body from Egypt and to bury it in the Cave of...
FEDERATION OF AMERICAN ZIONISTS – Zionist association organized in 1897 under the name of "Federation of Zionist Societies of Greater New York and Vicinity." It gradually expanded by absorbing societies outside New York, and on July 4, 1898, a convention was...
FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD – German-American rabbi and author; born Jan. 2, 1822, at Münchweiler, near Kaiserslautern, Germany. He was educated at the Kreisgewerbschule in Kaiserslautern, the Polytechnic High School, Munich, and the Teachers' Seminary at...
FINTA – A Spanish term signifying a tax which is paid to the government. It is still used—for example, in London by the Spanish and Portuguese congregations to designate a part of their revenue, levied by assessors ("fintadores")...
FISCHELL, A. – Rabbi and historian; lived in the city of New York in the middle of the nineteenth century. He was for some time an assistant to Dr. Raphall, minister of the Shearith Israel congregation. Concerning Fischell, whose name is also...
FLAG – A standard or banner having a certain color, emblem, and sometimes an inscription, and carried before a marching army to distinguish its nationality. Flags are of ancient origin. According to the Bible, each of the twelve tribes...
FLEISCHMANN, JULIUS – American merchant; mayor of Cincinnati, Ohio; born at Riverside, Ohio, June 8, 1872. Fleischmann was a member of the staff of Governor McKinley (later President of the United States), and also of the staffs of Governors Bushnell...
FLEXNER, SIMON – American physician and pathologist; born at Louisville, Kentucky, March 25, 1863. He received the degree of doctor of medicine at the University of Louisville, and continued his studies at Johns Hopkins University and the...
FLORIDA – The most southern of the United States of America, forming a peninsula washed on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and on the west by the Gulf of Mexico. Little is known of the early history of the Jews in Florida. In 1825 a plan...
FLOWERS IN THE HOME AND THE SYNAGOGUE – As an agricultural people the Jews in their own land appreciated flowers as a means of natural decoration. The first crop offruits offered at the altar in Jerusalem on the Feast of Harvest (Ex. xxiii. 16) was crowned with the...