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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
FRANK, NATHAN – American lawyer; member of the national House of Representatives; born in Peoria, Illinois, Feb. 23, 1852; educated in the public schools there, at Washington University, St. Louis, and at the Harvard Law School, from which he...
FRANKENTHAL, ADOLPH L. – United States consul at Bern, Switzerland; born July 1, 1851, at Lübeck, Germany. Frankenthal was educated at the public and high schools of his native town, and received instruction in Hebrew from the local rabbi. When fifteen...
FRANKLIN, FABIAN – American mathematician, editor, and author; born in Eger, Hungary, Jan. 18, 1853; son of Morris Joshua and Sarah Heilprin, of a family which has had several distinguished representatives in the United States. He was graduated...
FRANKS – American Jewish family which included a number of officers of some distinction engaged on both sides in the American Revolutionary war. The earliest known member appears to have been Jacob Franks, a merchant who settled in New...
FRATERNITIES – Societies for mutual benefit. If it be true that "the origin of the friendly society is probably in all countries the burial club" ("Encyc. Brit." ix. 780), Jewish organizations of that nature may be traced back nearly two...
FRAUENSCHUL – That part of the synagogue which is reserved for women, whether an annex, as in the Altneuschul of Prague and in the synagogue of Worms, or a gallery; the latter is generally in the rear of the building, on the west side, but...
FRAUENTHAL, MAX – American soldier; born at Marienthal, Rheinpfalz, Bavaria, in 1836; emigrated to America in 1851; lived for a time in Texas and Louisiana, finally settling in Brookhaven, Miss. On the outbreak of the Civil war he, with several...
FREEMASONRY – The institutions, rites, and principles of a secret society devoted to the promotion of fraternal feeling and morality among the members of the order. In its modern form it appears to have arisen in London in 1717, and thence...
FREIDUS, ABRAHAM SOLOMON – Bibliographer; born in Riga, Russia, May 1, 1867. He went to Paris in 1886, and thence to the United States in the autumn of 1889. In March, 1897, he entered the service of the New York Public Library as assistant cataloguer,...
FREIHEIM, J. B. – American lawyer and soldier; born in Bavaria 1848; died at Camden, Ark., Aug. 22, 1899. Freiheim was an early Jewish resident of Louisiana, where he was reared. He studied at the Louisiana State Military Academy, and at the...
FREUND, ERNST – American jurist; born in New York Jan. 30, 1864; attended gymnasia at Dresden and Frankfort-on-the-Main, and the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, receiving from the latter the degree of J.U.D., and later, from Columbia...
FRIEDENWALD – An American Jewish family, established in Baltimore, Md., by Jonas Friedenwald. His children were Bernard Stern, stepson (1820-73); Betzy Wiesenfeld (1820-94); Joseph (1826-); Isaac (1830-), who established a well-known printing...
FRIEDMAN, AARON ẒEBI – Shoḥeṭ: born in Stavisk, Poland, March 22, 1822; died in New York city May 17, 1876. At the age of seventeen Friedman became shoḥeṭ for the city of Stavisk and the neighboring country. He removed to Bernkastel-on-the-Moselle,...
FRIEDMAN, LÖB BEHR (Aryeh Dob) – Author and pedagogue; born in 1865 at Suwalki, Russian Poland. He was educated at Boskowitz, Moravia, afterward removing to Warsaw, where he became one of the promoters of Zionism, founding there, in conjunction with R. Samuel...
FROHMAN, CHARLES – American theatrical manager; born at Sandusky, Ohio, about 1858. He began his theatrical career as advance agent for Haverley's Mastodon Minstrels. Afterward he held a similar position with Collender's Georgia Minstrels, with...
FROHMAN, DANIEL – American theatrical manager; brother of Charles Frohman; born at Sandusky, Ohio, 1853. He went to New York city in 1866, and became office-boy of the "New York Tribune." He worked his way upward for five years, when he abandoned...
GALLERY – An elevated floor, or a balcony, in the interior of a church, synagogue, or other large building, resting on columns, and surrounded by a balustrade. In the Orthodox synagogues it is reserved for women; for the modern usage see...
GALVESTON – Chief commercial city of the state of Texas; on Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. It was founded in 1836, and has a population (1903) of 32,745. Jews settled in Galveston in 1840. In 1852 the Jewish Cemetery Association was...
GELILAH – The wrapping of the scroll of the Law in its vestments after the lesson has been read from it. In the German ritual it follows the "hagbahah" (lifting up), and its performance is deemed a lesser honor than that of the latter; in...
GEORGIA – One of the thirteen original states of the United States, situated on the Atlantic coast; settled by a chartered company of English colonists under James Oglethorpe in June, 1733. Its Jewish settlement dates almost from the...
GERSON, FELIX NAPOLEON – American lyrist, writer, and journalist; manager of "The Jewish Exponent" (Philadelphia); born in Philadelphia Oct. 18, 1862. He was educated in the public schools of that city, and from 1880 to 1890 was in the employ of the...
GERSTLE, LEWIS – Californian pioneer; born in Ichenhausen, Bavaria, Dec. 17, 1824; died at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 19, 1902. In 1845 he emigrated to America and proceeded to Louisville, where he began his career as a pedler. There he met Louis...
GODFATHER – Primarily, one who assists in the performance of the rite of circumcision by holding the child upon his knees; secondarily, one who in a measure takes the place of the father, interesting himself in the lad's welfare. In the...
GOLDFOGLE, HENRY MAYER – American lawyer and politician; born in New York city May 23, 1856; educated in the public schools and at Townsend College; admitted to the bar 1877. Goldfogle was elected judge of the municipal court, New York city, 1888, and...
GOLDSMITH, MILTON – American merchant and author; born at Philadelphia May 22, 1861. In 1877 he went to Europe and studied three years at Zurich. Goldsmith has written two novels: "Rabbi and Priest," 1891; "A Victim of Conscience," 1903, and in...