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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Cyrus Adler, Ph.D.

President of the American Jewish Historical Society; Former President of the Board of Directors of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

Contributions:
GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS – In the Middle Ages. The earliest descriptions of productions of the goldsmith's art refer to the work of Jewish goldsmiths. The Bible, which contains these descriptions, gives also the names of the workers—Bezaleel b. Uri and...
GOMPERS, SAMUEL – American labor-leader; born in London Jan. 27, 1850. At ten years of age he became a wage-earner, working in a shoe-factory; later he was apprenticed to a cigar-maker. In 1863 he emigrated to America, where a year later he...
GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV – American rabbi; born at Pinne in Prussian Posen May 28, 1827; died in New York city April 15, 1903. He was educated in Posen under Rabbi Solomon Plessner, and later continued his studies at the universities of Berlin and Halle...
GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO – American Orientalist; professor of Semitic languages, Columbia University, New York; born in Manchester, England, Oct. 13, 1862; son of Gustav Gottheil; educated at Chorlton High School, England, and at Columbia College, New...
GOTTHEIL, WILLIAM S. – American physician; born in Berlin Feb. 5, 1859; eldest son of Rabbi Gustav Gottheil. He was educated at Chorlton High School, Manchester, England; New York University, and Cornell University (A.B. 1879); and took his special...
GOTTLIEB, ABRAHAM – Civil engineer and contractor; born at Tauss, Bohemia, June 17, 1837; died in Chicago, Ill., Feb. 9, 1894. Gottlieb graduated from the University of Prague in 1861, and was at once employed on the Kaiser Francis-Joseph Railroad,...
GRATZ – American family prominent in the affairs of the city of Philadelphia and of the state of Pennsylvania. According to some authorities, the name "Gratz" is derived from a town in Styria, Austria; according to others, from a city...
GRATZ COLLEGE (Philadelphia) – Jewish institution of higher learning, founded under a deed of trust executed by Hyman Gratz, dated December, 1856, which, under certain contingencies that afterward arose, became vested in the Congregation Mickveh Israel of...
GREENHUT, JOSEPH B. – American soldier; born in Germany. He enlisted as a private in the 12th Illinois Infantry at Chicago April, 1861. He served with this regiment throughout Grant's campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee. At Fort Donelson, Greenhut...
GROSS, CHARLES – American author; born at Troy, N. Y., Feb. 10, 1857; educated at the Troy High School; at Williams College, from which he received the degree of M.A.; and at the universities of Paris, Berlin, and Göttingen, receiving from the...
GROSSMAN, RUDOLPH – American rabbi; born at Vienna, Austria, July 24, 1867; B.L., University of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Rabbi and D.D., Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati. Grossman was associate rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York, from 1889 to 1896, and...
GROSSMANN, LOUIS – American rabbi and author; born at Vienna, Austria, Feb. 24, 1863; educated at the University of Cincinnati (B.A.) and at the Hebrew Union College (D.D.). Grossmann is descended from a family of rabbis. In 1884 he became rabbi...
HABDALAH – The rabbinical term for the benedictions and prayers by means of which a division is made between times of varying degrees of holiness, e.g., between Sabbath and work-day, festival and work-day, or Sabbath and festival. The...
HABDALAH – The rabbinical term for the benedictions and prayers by means of which a division is made between times of varying degrees of holiness, e.g., between Sabbath and work-day, festival and work-day, or Sabbath and festival. The...
ḤAD GADYA – An Aramaic song, which is recited at the conclusion of the Seder service, held on the first two evenings of the Passover ("Pesaḥ") festival in Jewish households (see Haggadah). It is so called after the introductory phrase,...
ḤAD GADYA – An Aramaic song, which is recited at the conclusion of the Seder service, held on the first two evenings of the Passover ("Pesaḥ") festival in Jewish households (see Haggadah). It is so called after the introductory phrase,...
HAḲḲAFOT – HAḲḲAFOT Processional circuits of the congregation in the synagogue on the Feast of Tabernacles, usually around the Almemar, reminiscent of Joshua vi. and the proceedings in the Temple related in Sukkah 45a. The procession is...
HALLEL – The name given in the Talmud and in rabbinical writings to Ps. cxiii.-cxviii. considered as a single composition, which they undoubtedly are. They are more distinctively known as the "Hallel of Egypt," as distinguished from Ps....
HALLEL – The name given in the Talmud and in rabbinical writings to Ps. cxiii.-cxviii. considered as a single composition, which they undoubtedly are. They are more distinctively known as the "Hallel of Egypt," as distinguished from Ps....
ḤALUḲḲAH – An organized collection of funds for distribution among the indigent Jews in the Holy Land, and for the aid of those who, moved by religious motives, desire to journey thither. Sympathizing coreligionists of almost every...
HA-MABDIL – A hymn signed with the acrostic "Isaac ha-Ḳaṭon" (Isaac ben Judah ibn Ghayyat, 1030-89), obviously written for the Ne'ilah service of the Day of Atonement, but now used in the Habdalah at the close of the Sabbath. Of its many...
HARBY – American family, resident in the southern part of the United States.Solomon Harby: First of the family in North America; son of Isaac Harby, lapidary to the emperor of Morocco. He settled at Charleston, S. C., where his son,...
HARLAND, HENRY – American author; born at St. Petersburg March, 1861; educated at the College of the City of New York and at Harvard. From 1883 to 1886 he was in the office of the surrogate of New York, after which he removed to London and...
HARRIS, MAURICE HENRY – American rabbi; born Nov. 9, 1859, in London, England; educated in London and at Columbia College, New York city, graduating in 1887 (M.A., Ph.D.), and at the Emanu-El Theological Seminary of New York city.In 1883 Harris was...
HART – Several families of this name, of Anglo-Jewish origin, settled early in the English possessions in America, including Canada.Isaac Hart: One of the earliest Jewish residents of Newport, R. I. He settled there as early as 1750,...