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Alexander Büchler, Ph.D.

Rabbi, Keszthely, Hungary.

Contributions:
ALCIMUS – Alcimus and the Maccabees. Leader of the antinational Hellenists in Jerusalem, under Demetrius I. Soter of Syria (Josephus, "Ant." xi. 9, § 7); born about 200 B.C.; died at Jerusalem 160. He was of priestly family (I Macc. vii....
ANAN, SON OF ANAN – Born about the beginning of the common era (compare Josephus, "B. J." iv. 3, §§ 7 and 10); was appointed high priest by Agrippa II., in the year 62, but officiated only three months. As president of the Sanhedrin he availed...
ANAN, SON OF ANANIAS, THE HIGH PRIEST – He was strategus, or governor of the Temple at Jerusalem (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 12, § 6; "Ant." xx. 6, § 2), and while in office was sent (in 52) to Rome by Ummidius Quadratus, governor of Syria, to answer to Emperor Claudius...
ANANIAS, SON OF NEBEDEUS – High priest, appointed by Herod of Chalcis. He officiated from about 47 to 59, and was deprived of his office by Agrippa II. (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 5, § 2; 9, § 2). When the governor of Syria, Ummidius Quadratus, was...
ANANIAS, SON OF ONIAS IV. – On account of the persecutions under Antiochus IV., Onias IV. fled from Jerusalem to Egypt, won the favor of Ptolemy VI., and built there a temple (Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 10, § 4). Ananias and his brother Helkias were held in...
ANANIAS, SON OF ZADOK – According to Josephus ("B. J." ii. 17, § 10; "Vita," 66-67), one of the deputies of high rank from among the Pharisees, sent in the year 66 by Simon ben Gamaliel and the leading personages in Jerusalem to reprimand Josephus, the...
ANILAI – Robber chieftains. Two Jewish boys of Nehardea in Babylonia were apprenticed by their widowed mother to a weaver. Having been punished for laziness by their master, they ran away and became freebooters in the marshlands of the...
ANNIUS RUFUS – Procurator of Judea from the year 12-15 (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 2, § 2).A. Bü.
APOSTOLÉ, APOSTOLI – These two words, while similar in appearance, differ in signification. "Apostolé" was a term given to certain moneys or taxes for Palestine; "Apostoli," the designation of the men or apostles sent forth to collect it. The first...
ARCHON – The title of a member of the governing body in the independent Jewish communities throughout the Roman empire, as in Alexandria, Antioch, Berenice in Cyrenaica, Rome, Tlos in Lycia, and other cities. In Alexandria, where Emperor...
BUDA, PURIM OF – In 1684 the Christian armies laid siege to Buda (Ofen) to drive out the Turks, who had held possession of the city from 1541; their design was, however, frustrated by the stout resistance of the Turks and Jews. The participation...
BUDAPEST – The capital of Hungary. Of the several congregations within this tripartite city, Buda (Ofen), Ó-Buda (Alt-Ofen), and Pesth, that at Buda is the oldest (see Alt-Ofen); Jewish population in 1900 was 166,198. The first mention of...
EISENSTADT – City in the county of Oedenburg (Sopron), Hungary. The Jewish community of Eisenstadt is the only community of Hungary that has an independent political existence with an organization of its own, though the neighboring...
FIUME – Hungarian free city and Adriatic seaport, with a Jewish population in 1901 of about 2,000. That there were Jews at Fiume in the eighteenth century is indicated by the existence there of a Jewish tombstone dated 1746 and a scroll...
HUNGARY – Kingdom in central Europe, forming part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. It is not definitely known when Jews first settled in Hungary. According to legend, King Decebalus of Dacia permitted the Jews who aided him in his war...
KUNITZER, MOSES BEN MENAHEM – Rabbi in Ofen and dayyan in Budapest; born at Alt-Ofen; died Feb. 2, 1837. A descendant of Rabbi Löwe ben Bezaleel, he was one of the pioneers of enlightenment in Hungary. His works include: "Bet Rabbi" (Vienna, 1805), i.e., a...
LÖWISOHN, SOLOMON – Historian and poet; born in Mor, district of Stuhlweissenburg, Hungary, in 1788; died there April 27, 1821. He studied at the yeshibah of Prague, among his fellow students being his relative Moses Saphir, the humorist. He...
MANDL, CHRISTOF – Hungarian author; converted to Christianity in 1534. His godfather was George, Margrave of Brandenburg, to whom Mandl dedicated his "Dass Jesus Christus Sey das Ewig Wort" (1536), in which Jesus is represented as the Redeemer....
PÖSING – Small town in the county of Presburg, where on May 27, 1529 (Friday, Siwan 13), thirty Jews were burned to death on the accusation of having murdered a Christian child for ritual purposes. The charge was invented by the lord of...
ROSENTHAL, SOLOMON – Hungarian scholar; born in Moór, Hungary, June 13, 1764; died at Pesth April 8, 1845. His father, Naphtali Rosenthal, was a personal friend of Moses Mendelssohn in his youth. Rosenthal's teachers were Mordecai Benet, later chief...
SCHULHOF, ISAAC BEN ZALMAN BEN MOSES – Austrian rabbi; born about 1650 at Prague; died there Jan. 19, 1733. He settled in Ofen as the rabbi of a small congregation, and in 1686, when that city was stormed by the imperialists, he was overwhelmed by calamities. His...
SHEBA' ḲEHILLOT – Designation of the following seven populous Jewish communities in the counties of Oedenburg (Sopron) and Wieselburg (Mosony), Hungary: (1) Eisenstadt (Hungarian, Kis-Marton); (2) Deutsch-Kreutz (Német-Keresztur; Judæo-German, );...
SIMḤAH (FREUDEMANN) EPHRAIM BEN GERSHON BEN SIMEON BEN ISAIAH HA-KOHEN – Rabbi in Belgrade; born about 1622; died 1669. He succeeded his teacher Judah Lerma as rabbi at Belgrade, and wrote a preface to the latter's "Peleṭat Bet Yehudah" (Venice, 1647).In 1657 Simḥah published at Venice his "Sefer...
SZERENCSÉS (FORTUNATUS), EMERICH – Hungarian deputy treasurer; died Aug., 1526. As a married man he had had illicit intercourse with a Christian woman, and when this became known, in order to escape severe punishment he was forced to embrace Christianity; he was...
THEBEN, KOPPEL (JACOB BEN ABRAHAM MANDL) – President of the Jewish community in Presburg; died at Prague Aug. 26, 1799. As "sheṭadlan" of the Hungarian Jews he gained distinction; and under Joseph II., Leopold II., and Francis I. he labored indefatigably in behalf of his...