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Abraham Lewinsky, Ph.D.

Chief Rabbi, Hildesheim, Hanover, Germany.

Contributions:
DUDERSTADT – A city in Eichsfelde, province of Hanover. Jews have lived there as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century, as appears from the renewal of the privileges for that town by Duke Henry II. on Nov. 17, 1314. They enjoyed...
EINBECK – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. That Jews lived there at a very early date is shown by the fact that some Einbeck Jews were burned at the stake in 1298. In a document of 1355 a Jews' street and a "schole der Joden" are...
EMDEN – Prussian maritime town in the province of Hanover. It is not known when Jews first settled there. In the sixteenth century David Gans mentions ("Ẓemaḥ Dawid," 1581, ii.) Jews at Emden. In the letter of complaints (March 9, 1590)...
GÖTTINGEN – From the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century. City in the province of Hanover, Germany; formerly capital of the principality of Grubenhagen under the dominion of the Guelfic dukes. Jews settled in Göttingen in the thirteenth...
HANOVER – Capital of the Prussian province of the same name. Jews lived there as early as the first half of the fourteenth century, and they were well treated by the authorities. The municipal law ("Stadtrecht") of 1303 contained a...
HARBURG – Jew Minters. City on the Elbe, six miles south of Hamburg, in the Prussian province of Hanover. Jews were not admitted to Harburg until the seventeenth century, when Duke William August (1603-1642) established a mint there which...
HILDESHEIM – Town in the Prussian province of Hanover. At what time Jews were first admitted to this old episcopal city is uncertain. In a document of Jan. 7, 1347, mention is made of the taxes to be paid by the Jews. The bishops of...
MÜNDEN – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. Its Jews are first mentioned in the sixteenth century. When Duke Heinrich the Younger excluded all Jews from the territory of Brunswick (1557), the Jews of Münden were permitted to...
NORTHEIM – Town in the province of Hanover, Prussia. It has a population of 6,695, of whom over 100 are Jews. Jews lived there as early as the fourteenth or fifteenth century, and paid to the council of Hildesheim a semiannual tax ranging...
OLDENBURG – Grand duchy of northern Germany. It includes nine Jewish communities, among which are Delmenhorst, Jever, Oldenburg, Varel, Vechta, and Wildeshausen. The presence of Jews in Oldenburg during the Middle Ages is proved by a very...
OSNABRÜCK – Capital of the district of the same name in the province of Hanover, Prussia. A Jew named Jacob is mentioned in a document of 1267 as living there; and the text of a Jewish oath of the same period has been preserved. On Nov. 28,...
PAPPENHEIM, SIMON – German writer; born at Dembiohammer 1773; died at Ratibor Aug. 6, 1840. He at first supported himself as a private tutor, and then he obtained in Ratibor a position as manager in a pottery. Pappenheim meanwhile pursued his...
PEINE – German town in the province of Hanover. It belonged formerly to the bishopric of Hildesheim. Jews lived there as early as the fourteenth century. On July 27, 1428, Magnus, Bishop of Hildesheim, pawned the Jews of the city and...
SCHOTT (SCHOTTLÄNDER), BENEDICT (BARUCH) – German educationist; born in Danzig March 11, 1763 (or 1764); died at Seesen July 21, 1846. Left an orphan at an early age, he wandered through Germany as a scholar ("baḥur"), and among other places sojourned in Glogau, Breslau,...
SCHULMANN, LUDWIG – German philologist and writer; born at Hildesheim 1814; died at Hanover July 24, 1870. He studied philology at the University of Göttingen, and then taught for a time in his native city. In 1842 he began to advocate the...
SMOL VON DERENBURCH (SAMUEL OF DERENBURG) – Court banker to the archbishops of Magdeburg in the fourteenth century; died after Oct. 5, 1382. In some of his financial transactions he was assisted by two of his brothers, Marquard and Ephraim. On Nov. 28, 1347, Archbishop...
SOEST – City in the province of Westphalia, Prussia. As early as the middle of the thirteenth century Jews of Soest are mentioned, e.g., Meyer and his wife, Betzel, who resided in Cologne from 1248 to 1255 (Höniger, "Das...
STADE – City in the province of Hanover, Prussia. Its Jews are first mentioned in a charter granted them in 1349. In 1613 they received a patent of protection from Johann Friedrich, Archbishop of Bremen; and on Sept. 28, 1615, he...
STADTHAGEN, JOSEPH – German rabbi, apologist, and author; died at Stadthagen Sept. 5, 1715; son of Samson of Metz, where his grandfather Joseph b. Isaac ha-Levi Ashkenazi (died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1628) officiated as rabbi for many years....
TREVES – City of Rhenish Prussia, formerly an electorate comprising upper and lower bishoprics with Treves and Coblenz as capitals (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 133). In all probability Jews lived in the city in the early centuries of the common...
WETZLAR – Prussian city in the district of Coblenz; formerly a free city. Jews lived there probably as early as the twelfth century, since a young Jew of "Writschlar" is mentioned in connection with the murder of Alexander of Andernach...
WORMS – Early History. Town in Rhein-Hesse, grand duchy of Hesse, Germany. Like Mayence and Cologne, it has one of the oldest Jewish communities in Germany. A legend relates that the Jews of Worms were descended from the Benjamites who...