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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
CUCKOO – The A. V. rendering of (shaḥaf) in Lev. xi. 16 and Deut. xiv. 15. In both places it occurs in the list of unclean birds. This identification, however, is only a conjecture, and there is no certain tradition to support it. The...
CUCUMBER – The rendering of the Hebrew (Num. xi. 5). There are at least two kinds of cucumbers in Palestine (Hasselquist, Groser, Post, etc.); viz., Cucumis sativus and C. chate. The former is the common green cucumber well known in the...
CUMIN – The seed of the Cuminum Cyminum, an umbelliferous plant, which, coming originally from Mediterranean countries, spread to many parts of the world. Its name is common to Greek, Hebrew, Phenician, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic, as...
CUMIN – The seed of the Cuminum Cyminum, an umbelliferous plant, which, coming originally from Mediterranean countries, spread to many parts of the world. Its name is common to Greek, Hebrew, Phenician, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic, as...
CURTAIN – Curtains in Tabernacle. An adjustable drapery, usually hung before a window or passageway to insure privacy. In Ex. xxvi. and xxxvi., containing the directions for the making and a description of the erection of the Tabernacle,...
CUSH – Biblical Data: A nation whose founder is mentioned in Gen. x. 6; I Chron. i. 8 as brother to Mizraim (Egypt) and as a son of Ham; with the exception of the passages in Genesis, A. V. renders it "Ethiopia." This African country...
CUSH – Biblical Data: A nation whose founder is mentioned in Gen. x. 6; I Chron. i. 8 as brother to Mizraim (Egypt) and as a son of Ham; with the exception of the passages in Genesis, A. V. renders it "Ethiopia." This African country...
CUTHAH – One of five cities from which Sargon, King of Assyria, brought settlers to take the places of the exiled Israelites (II Kings xvii. 24, 30). These settlers were attacked by lions, and interpreting this to mean that their worship...
CUTTINGS – In Biblical usage, incisions or gashes in the flesh. The Law forbids the Israelites to make any cuttings in the flesh. For this operation two terms are used: "hitgoded" (Deut. xiv. 1) and "saraṭ" (Lev. xix. 28). From the context...
CUTTINGS – In Biblical usage, incisions or gashes in the flesh. The Law forbids the Israelites to make any cuttings in the flesh. For this operation two terms are used: "hitgoded" (Deut. xiv. 1) and "saraṭ" (Lev. xix. 28). From the context...
CYMBALS – Musical instruments of percussion. The term is used in the A. V. in all passages except one (Zech. xiv. 20) as the rendering of the Hebrew "ẓelẓelim" and "meẓiltayim." Known to most nations of antiquity, cymbals served to mark...
CYPRESS – Generally, the tree known to botanists as Cupressus sempervirens, and common to southern Europe and western Asia. In modern Palestine the cypress is frequently found in the neighborhood of towns, and is often planted in...
DABBASHETH – A town on the border-line of Zebulun (Josh. xix. 11). It has been identified by Conder with Dabsheh, the ruins of which are near the hills east of Acco. The Septuagint reading is Βαιθάραβα.E. G. H. G. B. L.
DABERATH – A town on the eastern boundary of Zebulun (Josh. xix. 12), but belonging to the domain of Issachar, and assigned to the Levites (Josh. xxi. 28; I Chron. vi. 58). It is the modern Deburich, an important strategic position at the...
DAGGER – A short, edged, and pointed weapon for stabbing. It is given in the Ehud episode (Judges iii. 16, 21, 22) as the English equivalent for "ḥereb," which elsewhere is rendered "sword." See Sword).E. G. H. G. B. L.
DALPHON – The second of the ten sons of Haman. All were killed by the Jews and hanged upon gallows (Esth. ix. 10-14). The Septuagint reading is Δελφών;.E. G. H. G. B. L.
DAN – Biblical Data: 1. The name of Jacob's fifth son (Gen. xxx. 6), whose mother was Bilhah, Rachel's handmaiden (ib. xxx. 3, xxxv. 25). He was therefore a full brother of Naphtali (xxx. 8). Dan's name occurs also in Gen. xlix. 16 et...
DAN – Biblical Data: 1. The name of Jacob's fifth son (Gen. xxx. 6), whose mother was Bilhah, Rachel's handmaiden (ib. xxx. 3, xxxv. 25). He was therefore a full brother of Naphtali (xxx. 8). Dan's name occurs also in Gen. xlix. 16 et...
DAN-JAAN – If the reading is correct, the name of a city mentioned only once in the Bible (II Sam. xxiv. 6). It was one of the places included in the route of Joab and his associates when they were sent out by David to number the people....
DANCING – Biblical Data: Rhythmical and measured stepping to the accompaniment of music, singing, or the beating of drums. This exercise, generally expressive of joy, is found among all primitive peoples. It was originally incident to...
DANIEL – Biblical Data: In Hebrew (1) ; (2) . (1) The form without the (see Masorah Magna to Ezek. xiv. 14) occurs in Ezek. xiv. 14, 20; xxviii. 3; also in a Palmyrene inscription (see De Vogué, "Syrie Centrale," No. 93). The...
DANIEL – Biblical Data: In Hebrew (1) ; (2) . (1) The form without the (see Masorah Magna to Ezek. xiv. 14) occurs in Ezek. xiv. 14, 20; xxviii. 3; also in a Palmyrene inscription (see De Vogué, "Syrie Centrale," No. 93). The...
DANIEL, BOOK OF – Critical View: One of the books of the Old Testament. It may be divided into two parts: chapters i.-vi., recounting the events of Daniel's life; chapters vii.-xii., containing his prophecies. "While the first part proves that it...
DARDA – One of the wise men surpassed in wisdom by King Solomon (I Kings iv. 31). He is mentioned, with Ethan, Heman, and Chalcol, as a son of Mahol. In I Chron. ii. 6 he is called "Dara," the son of Zerah. Rabbinic fancy has identified...
DARKNESS – The rendering in the English versions of the Hebrew and its synonyms , . At one time darkness was regarded as something substantial, and not merely as the absence of light. This is apparent from the frequent juxtaposition of...