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Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation; Professor of Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of Chicago; Chicago, Ill.

Contributions:
DIBON – 1. A very ancient town, situated from three to five miles (Baedeker, "Palestine," p. 193) north of the River Arnon (Tristram, "The Land of Moab," pp. 132 et seq.). The true pronunciation seems to be "Daibon" (according to the...
DIETARY LAWS – Biblical and rabbinical regulations concerning forbidden food.Vegetable Food. A. The ancient Israelites lived chiefly on vegetable food and fruit, upon which the Bible places no restrictions (Gen. i. 29). With the development of...
DIKLAH – A son of Joktan (Gen. x. 27, and the corresponding genealogical list, I Chron. i. 21). The names of the other sons of Joktan point clearly to an Arabic origin, and it is quite reasonable to suppose that Diklah also had in Arabic...
DINAH – Biblical. Data: "Dinah" is the name of Jacob's daughter by Leah (Gen. xxx. 21). Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite, seduces her while she is visiting "to see the daughters of the land" (Gen. xxxiv. 1-31). Though he is anxious...
DINAH – Biblical. Data: "Dinah" is the name of Jacob's daughter by Leah (Gen. xxx. 21). Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite, seduces her while she is visiting "to see the daughters of the land" (Gen. xxxiv. 1-31). Though he is anxious...
DISTAFF – A stick on which flax or wool was wound ready for hand-spinning before the spinning-wheel came into use. It was held under the left arm, or stuck in the girdle, of the spinner. The fibers were drawn from it and twisted by the...
DIZAHAB – Name occurring but once in the Bible—in the topographical description in Deut. i. 1. Its identity has not been successfully established. The context, locating it indefinitely in the trans-Jordanic region, and mentioning it among...
DODANIM – Name of sons of Javan, brothers to Elishah, Tarshish, and the Kittim, in the ethnographic table in Genesis (x. 4). The ancestor being Javan (= Ionian), the Dodanim must represent also a Greek clan. This can not be Dodona in the...
DODAVAH – The father of Eliezer of Mareshah (II Chron. xx. 37). The latter preached against the alliance between Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah, and saw in the wreck of the ships sent out by Jehoshaphat divine punishment for the alliance. The...
DODO – 1. The father of Eleazar, "one of the three mighty men with David, when they defiedthe Philistines that were there gathered together to battle" (II Sam. xxiii. 9; R. V. "Dodai"). I Chron. xi. 12 reads "Dodo, the Ahohite," while...
DOOR AND DOOR-POST – Doors were suspended and moved by means of pivots of wood ("potot") which projected from the ends of the two folds above and below. The pivots were inserted in sockets ("ẓirim," Prov. xxvi. 14). Doors were fastened by a lock, (...
DOOR AND DOOR-POST – Doors were suspended and moved by means of pivots of wood ("potot") which projected from the ends of the two folds above and below. The pivots were inserted in sockets ("ẓirim," Prov. xxvi. 14). Doors were fastened by a lock, (...
DOVE – One of the most familiar species of pigeon. The most common term for dove in the O. T. is "yonah," comprising the whole family of Columbidœ, but in particular denoting the dove (Columba), as distinguished from the turtle-dove...
DRAGON – The usual translation of the Septuagint for , dangerous monster whose bite is poisonous ("dragons' poison") (Deut. xxxii. 33; Ps. xci. 13). Nowhere distinctly described, they must be imagined as of composite form, resembling,...
DRAWER OF WATER – A proverbial expression always found in connection with "hewer of wood" (Deut. xxix. 11; Josh. ix. 21, 23, 27). When the fraud practised by the Gibeonites was discovered, the Israelites, since they had taken an oath to defend...
DREAMS – Biblical Data: Dreams have at all times and among all peoples received much attention. In the youth of a nation, as in the youth of an individual, dreams are so vivid that they appear to be hardly distinguishable from reality....
DRINKING-VESSELS – Less is known of the form and material of the drinking-vessels of the Hebrews than of those of the Greeks and the Romans. The water-skin ("hemet," Gen. xxi. 15, 19; "ob," Job xxxii. 19; and "nod," Judges iv. 19), made of the...
DROMEDARY – A variety or choice breed of the camel proper, or one-humped camel; much tallerand longer in the leg than the ordinary camel, of a more slender shape, and generally of a very light color. Its speed is considerable, reaching...
DUALISM – The system in theology which explains the existence of evil by assuming two coeternal principles—one good, the other evil. This dualism is the chief characteristic of the religion of Zoroaster, which assigns all that is good to...
DUMAH – Biblical Data: 1. Son of Ishmael (Gen. xxv. 14; I Chron. i. 30). Suḳ ("marKet") Dumah has been found in Dumat al-Jandal in Arabia, called "Jauf" to-day (Yakut, s.v.; Burkhardt, "Travels in Syria," p. 662), and compared with...
DURA – A valley mentioned only in Daniel (iii. 1). Here Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, to the dedication of which he summoned all the officers of his kingdom. The Septuagint (Codex Chisianus) reads περιβόλου ("walls surrounding...
DWARF – Bible. —Biblical Data: The rendering in A. V. of (Lev. xxi. 20, literally "thin"), denoting one of the physical disqualifications of priests for the service. In this sense is taken by Targ. Yer. ( ) and Ibn Ezra ad loc. (comp....
EAGLE – The rendering in the English Bible versions of the Hebrew "nesher." The nesher, however, was bald; nested on high rocks; and was gregarious in its habits (Micah i. 16; Job xxxix. 27, 28; Prov. xxx. 17), all of which...
EARRING – A ring or hook passed through the lobe of the ear. Earrings, so widely used by Eastern peoples, have no particular designation in Hebrew. The word is applied to both the ornament for the ear and that for the nose; so that when...
EARTH – The Hebrew expression for "earth" means primarily earth or soil as an element, and also the surface of the earth and plowed land, the latter being probably of the red color characteristic of Palestinian soil (compare Abu...