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Eduard Meyer, Ph.D.

Professor of Ancient History, University of Berlin, Germany.

Contributions:
ARTAXERXES I – Sources of Information. King of Persia; ascended the throne in 465 B.C., and died in 425 B.C. In the Persian name Artakhshathra ("he whose empire is perfected") the "thr" (written with a special sign in Persian) is pronounced...
ARTAXERXES II – originally Arsakes, surnamed Mnemon by the Greeks): The eldest son of Darius II.; succeeded his father in 404 B.C. (Diodorus, xiii. 108), and adopted the name of his grandfather Artaxerxes. He reigned until 359; that is, 46...
ARTAXERXES III. – A son of Artaxerxes II. He originally bore a name which in Babylonian was written "Umasu" (and therefore in the Ptolemaic canon, as given by Elias of Nisibis, the form is found). He was called Ochus by the Greeks. After he had...
CYRUS – The founder of the Persian empire. The name is also found in India as "Kurus," and is evidently Aryan. The translation "sun" given by Ctesias (in Müller's edition of Didot's "Herodotus," fragm. 29, 49) is due to a confusion with...
DARIUS I – King of Persia from 521 to 485 B.C.; son of Hystaspes. The sources for the history of Darius are his own trilingual inscription at Behistun, the Babylonian contract tablets, and the accounts which the Greeks from Herodotus...
DARIUS III – Biblical Data: Last King of Persia; reigned from 336 to 330 B.C.; conquered by Alexander the Great. He is probably the "Darius the Persian," with whose reign the record of the priestly heads of families mentioned in Nehemiah...
XERXES – Son of Darius, King of Persia (485-465 B.C.). His name, which is Khshayarsha in Persian, Ikhshiyarshu (with variants) in Babylonian, and Ξέρξης in Greek, frequently occurs, in the Old Testament. It is often written with ו...