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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Francis L. Cohen,

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

Contributions:
BRISTOL – Early History. Commercial seaport city in the counties of Gloucester and Somerset, England. Jews settled very early at Bristol, which was the center of the slave-trade between England and Ireland, until its discontinuance, under...
CANTILLATION – Mode of intonation used in public recital of prayers and Holy Scripture. The infinite gradations of tone in ordinary speech serve to bring home to the listener the interrelation and coordination of the words used by the speaker....
EL NORA 'ALILAH – Ahymn attributed to Moses ibn Ezra, and chanted, in the Sephardic liturgy, before the commencement of the "Ne'ilah" or closing service of the Day of Atonement. It is sung to spirited tunes by English-speaking, Dutch, and Italian...
ELI ẒIYYON – The alphabetical hymn closing the series of "ḳinot" chanted in the northern rituals on the morning of the Fast of Ab, where it comes as a comparative relief to the series of dirges which precede it. The tune is not older than...
EN KELOHENU – Ancient hymn, familiar from its occurrence in immediate succession to the Additional Service (Musaf) at festivals, and in many liturgies on Sabbaths also. To the four titles, "our God," "our Lord," "our King," "our Savior," are...
'ET SHA'ARE RAẒON – A long poem on the binding of Isaac upon the altar ('AḲedah), written by Judah ben Samuel ibn Abbas, a twelfth-century rabbi of Fez, for chanting before the sounding of the shofar, and so utilized in the Sephardic liturgy of the...
GESHEM – One of the Hebrew words for "rain," applied mostly to the heavy rains which occur in Palestine in the fall and winter. This half of the year is called in the Mishnah "yemot ha-geshamin" (days of rains). In the liturgy of the...
ḤAD GADYA – An Aramaic song, which is recited at the conclusion of the Seder service, held on the first two evenings of the Passover ("Pesaḥ") festival in Jewish households (see Haggadah). It is so called after the introductory phrase,...
HAḲḲAFOT – HAḲḲAFOT Processional circuits of the congregation in the synagogue on the Feast of Tabernacles, usually around the Almemar, reminiscent of Joshua vi. and the proceedings in the Temple related in Sukkah 45a. The procession is...
HALLEL – The name given in the Talmud and in rabbinical writings to Ps. cxiii.-cxviii. considered as a single composition, which they undoubtedly are. They are more distinctively known as the "Hallel of Egypt," as distinguished from Ps....
HA-MABDIL – A hymn signed with the acrostic "Isaac ha-Ḳaṭon" (Isaac ben Judah ibn Ghayyat, 1030-89), obviously written for the Ne'ilah service of the Day of Atonement, but now used in the Habdalah at the close of the Sabbath. Of its many...
HAST, MARCUS – London cantor and composer; born at Warsaw in 1840. In 1864 he went to Germany to study music, and on his arrival at Breslau was appointed cantor at the chief Orthodox synagogue. While at Breslau he gave instruction to many...
ḤAZZANUT – Originally, as in the Siddur of Saadia Gaon, the term was applied to the piyyuṭim which it was the function of the official then called "ḥazzan" to recite. But as the duties of this official spread to the intonation of the whole...
ḲADDISH – Name of the doxology recited, with congregational responses, at the close of the prayers in the synagogue; originally, and now frequently, recited after Scripture readings and religious discourses in schoolhouse or synagogue. It...
ḲEROBOT – A term applied to the scheme of Piyyuṭim in the earlier part of the repetition of the morning 'Amidah on special Sabbaths, on the Three Festivals, and on New-Year, in the Ashkenazic liturgy. The Neo-Hebraic verses in the...
KI LO NA'EH – A hymn, beginning thus, in the home-ritual for Passover eve, and one of the latest constituents of the Seder Haggadah, dating from the fifteenth century (see Haggadah). It was originally intended for the first night of the...
KOL NIDRE – Prayer recited in the synagogue at the beginning of the evening service on the Day of Atonement; the name is taken from the opening words. The "Kol Nidre" has had a very eventful history, both in itself and in its influence on...
LE-DAWID BARUK – Familiar title for Ps. cxliv., from the initial words of the Hebrewtext, with especial reference to its employment, together with Ps. lxvii., as an introduction to the evening prayer at the close of the Sabbath. Alone among the...
LEKAH DODI – The initial words of the refrain of a hymn for the service of inauguration of the Sabbath, written about the middle of the sixteenth century by Solomon ha-Levi Alḳabiẓ, who signed eight of its nine verses with his acrostic. The...
LYON (LEONI), MYER – Operatic singer and ḥazzan; died at Kingston, Jamaica, about 1800; uncle of John Braham; both he and his nephew were choristers at the same time at the Great Synagogue, London. Lyon was also a public singer; and his voice was...
MAH NISHTANNAH – The opening words of the child's questions to the father in the Passover Haggadah; the whole of the domestic service of the Passover is sometimes, familiarly, so named. The questions are often chanted in the students'...
MA'OZ ẒUR – Commencement of the hymn originally sung only in the domestic circle, but now used also in the synagogue, after the kindling of the lights on the Feast of Dedication (Ḥanukkah). The acrostic signature is that of Mordecai. Zunz...
MARCELLO, BENEDETTO – Italian musician; born at Venice 1686; died there 1739. He is particularly celebrated for his settings to the Psalms, fifty of which, under the title of "Estro Poetico-Armonico, Parafrasi Sopra li Salmi," were published at...
MI-KAMOKAH – Opening words of the verse Ex. xv. 11, which, with verse 18 of the same chapter ("Adonai Yimlok," etc.), is regularly employed as a response in the evening and morning services between the Shema' and the Shemoneh 'Esreh....
MIZMOR LE-DAWID – The superscription to Ps. xxix., chanted on Sabbaths before the evening service, and at morning service while the scroll of the Law is being returned to the Ark. Settings by modern composers are in most cases utilized in the...