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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ADAM – Biblical Data: The Hebrew and Biblical name for man, and also for the progenitor of the human race. In the account of the Creation given in Gen. i. man was brought into being at the close of the sixth creative day, "made in the...
ADDISON, JOSEPH – English essayist; born at Milston, in England, May 1, 1672; died June 17, 1719. He has been fittingly characterized as "the chief architect of English public opinion in the eighteenth century." For this reason his attitude...
ADHAN – A family of northern Africa, several members of which figure in Jewish literature. The family name was originally Aldahhan. In Old Arabic this signifies "an oil merchant"; in the modern Arabic of Morocco it means "a painter" or...
ADIABENE – A district in Mesopotamia between the Upper Zab (Lycus) and the Lower Zab (Caprus), though Ammianus ("Hist." xviii., vii. 1) speaks of Nineveh, Ecbatana, and Gaugamela as also belonging to it. For some centuries, beginning with...
ADRET – A prominent Spanish-Jewish family, members of which are known from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century. In Spanish documents the name is always written Adret, and in a Hebrew manuscript in the Bodleian Library (No. 2218 =...
ADRIANOPLE – Legendary Blood Accusation. A city of Turkey in Europe with a population of 70,000, of whom about 8,000 are Jews. The first trace of a Jewish settlement in this city (according to a somewhat doubtful source found in E. Deinard's...
AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL – Liturgical poet, and author of a family chronicle; born in Capua, Italy, 1017; died about 1060 in Oria. Very little is known about his life. He came of a family some of whose members are well known in Jewish literature as...
AHIN, BENDICH – Mathematician and physician at Arles during the second half of the fourteenth century. Nostradamus says that Ahin was an excellent mathematician, well versed in Arabic, Greek, and Latin; that, because he was prudent, loyal, and...
ALAISH – The name of a Spanish-Jewish family, which occurs in various forms; usually preceded by "abu." Abu-al-'aish means in Arabic "Father of Life" or "Father of Bread." In the form Bolaix (compare the Arabic Belcasem for Abu al-Kasim)...
ALFANDARI – A family of eastern rabbis prominent in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, found in Smyrna, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. The name may be derived from a Spanish locality, perhaps from Alfambra. The following is a list of...
ALFONSUS BONIHOMINIS – The name taken by the Latin translator or adapter of an anti-Jewish pamphlet, originally written in Arabic by Samuel abu Naṣr ibn Abbas, better known as Samuel Maroccanus (of Morocco). The first edition bears the title,...
ALFUAL – The family name of a number of Spanish Jews (Steinschneider, "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 587), of whom the following are known:Abraham Alfual: Of Tortosa; lived at the end of the fourteenth century. He is cited in the responsa of...
ALḤADIB – Name of a family of which representatives are known from the beginning of the fourteenth to the end of the seventeenth century. The following list includes the more important members:Abraham ben Solomon Alḥadib: Judge in Corfu...
ALI IBN SAHL IBN RABBAN ALTABARI (ABU AL-ḤASAN) – Physician and writer on medical subjects in Irak about the middle of the ninth century; born in Taberistan. His father, Sahl, was well known as an astronomer and mathematician. For a time Ali lived at Rai, where Mohammed al-Razi...
ALMANZI – A family that, according to Luzzatto, derives its name from the city of Almansa in Murcia, Spain. The earliest member of the family of whom there is any knowledge is Abraham Joseph Almanzi, grandfather of Joseph Almanzi....
ALMANZI, JOSEPH – Bibliophile and poet; born at Padua, March 25, 1801; died at Triest, March 7, 1860. The eldest son of Baruch Ḥayyim Almanzi, a wealthy merchant; he received a good education by private tutors, one of whom was Israel Conian....
ALMOLI, ALMULI – A Spanish-Jewish family name derived from the Arabic al-mu'alli ("the one who raises up"). In addition to those referred to in the following articles two other members of the family are known. A Salomon Almuli is mentioned in a...
ALNAQUA – An important family of Spanish Jews, the first mention of whom occurs late in the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name is written or . It is the same as or , though Steinschneider seems to be of a different opinion. In modern...
AL-RABI IBN ABU AL-ḤUḲAIḲ – Jewish poet of the Banu al-Nadhir in Medina, who flourished shortly before the Hegira (622). His family was in possession of the fort Al-Kammus, situated near Khaibar. Like most of the Medina Jews, he took part in the quarrels...
ALTARAS – A family name variously spelled: and . It is not certain whether this is the same name as that borne by the Spanish Karaite, Sidi ibn al-Taras ( ), author of a work containing the opinions of Abu al-Faraj. Altaras is mentioned...
AMITTAI BEN SHEPHATIAH – A wellknown liturgical poet, who flourished at Oria, Italy, in the beginning of the tenth century. The time of his activity was until recently a matter of doubt. Rabbenu Tam (died 1171) cites one of his piyutim ( ; Yeb. 16b;...
AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS – Roman historian; born at Antioch, Syria, about 320; died about 395. He wrote a history of Rome, from Nerva to Valens, in which the Jews are mentioned in Books XIV. ch. viii.; XXII. ch. v.; XXIII. ch. i.; XXIV. ch. iv. It is...
AMSTERDAM – One of the capital cities of the Netherlands founded as a fishing village in the thirteenth century. No Jews lived there in the early period when it was under Spanish domination. The history of its Jews may be best considered...
ANNA – Daughter of Rabbi Eleazar of Worms; lived at Erfurt, where she died as martyr by the hand of Crusaders, Dec. 6, 1213 or 1214. Her mother (Dolce) and sister (Bellette) met with the same fate.Bibliography: Kayserling, Jüdische...
ANNA – Daughter of R. Meir of Ramerupt, sister of Rabbenu Tam and Rashbam, and granddaughter of Rashi; a learned woman of Champagne, France, and who, about the middle of the twelfth century, gave instruction to women in the Jewish...