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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS – Roman statesman and orator; born 106; died 43 B.C. In 59 he delivered in the Aurelian Forum at Rome a speech in behalf of Flaccus, in which he spoke disparagingly of the Jews; this was perhaps not from conviction so much as in...
CID, CAMPEADOR RUY DIAZ DE VIVAR – The conqueror of Valencia (1094) and popular hero of the Spanish nation. Lacking money to pay his knights, he negotiated through his nephew, Martin Antolinez, a loan of 600 marks from two wealthy Jews of Burgos, Don Rachel and...
CILICIA – Name and Situation. Ancient province of southeastern Asia Minor, separated from Syria by the Taurus-Amanus range. In native Phenician inscriptions the name is given as or (Lidzbarski, "Handbuch der Nordsemitischen Epigraphik,"...
CIRCUS – In antiquity a large enclosure used for horse-and chariot-races, and sometimes for gladiatorial combats, etc. Public games and theatrical representations being such important factors in the life of the Greeks and Romans, the...
CIUDAD REAL – Capital of the former province of La Mancha (now the province of Ciudad Real) in New Castile, founded in 1255 by Don Alfonso X. of Castile. Among its first inhabitants were Jews as well as Moors, the former of whom, chiefly from...
CIVIDALI – Italian city, in the province of Udine. It is a part of the ancient duchy of Friuli, now divided between Austria and Italy. Aside from certain inscriptions preserved in the Cividali Museum, which would date the first Jewish...
CLASSICAL WRITERS AND THE JEWS – The name Ιουδαὶος is apparently first mentioned by Theophrastus, a philosopher of the fourth century B.C. He regards the Jews as a nation of philosophers who "spend their days in discussions about God, and their nights in...
CLAUDIUS – Roman emperor, 41-54 C.E. Claudius was the second son of Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius. Being of a feeble constitution, and unprepossessing in appearance, he was slighted by everybody, even by his own mother....
CLAUDIUS, RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS – Roman poet. He held high public offices in Rome, but returned (416) to Gaul, the land of his birth, after the devastation of the latter by the Goths. He depicts his return in his poem "De Reditu Suo." As a polytheist he was...
CLAVA, ISAIAH – Spanish poet of Amsterdam. He translated from Hebrew into Spanish a Purim song, under the title "Cancio de Purim, Establecido Sobre su Historia, Echo por un Anonimo,y Ahora Nuevamente Sacado del Hebrayco al Espagnol,"Amsterdam,...
CLEOPATRA – Queen of Egypt 52-30 B.C.; daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Through her association with the rulers of Rome, Cleopatra was of importance not so much to the Jews of her own country as to those of Judea. When Herod fled in great...
CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM – One of the nine wives of Herod I., whom he married late in life. She bore to him Herod and Philippus (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 1, § 3; "B. J." i. 28, § 4).G.S. Kr.
CLERMONT-FERRAND – Early History. Chief town of the department of Puy-de-Dôme, France. The origin of the Jewish community of Augusta-Nemetum (Clermont) is usually assigned to the third century of the common era. It is said that the first apostle...
CLISSON – Town in the department of Loire-Inférieure, France, formerly belonging to the province of Brittany. Clisson was a center of Jewish learning, several renowned scholars having resided there; and its name, variously written , ,...
COBLENZ – Prussian city on the Rhine. Jews settled there between 1135 and 1159, and are first mentioned in the "Judenschreinsbuch" (Archives) of Cologne. As early as 1100 there is mention of a custom-house in Coblenz at which Jews were...
COEN, BENJAMIN VITALE – Italian rabbi; born at Alessandria della Paglia in the second half of the seventeenth century; died at Reggio nell' Emilia in 1739. Descended from a wealthy and prominent family, Coen was elected rabbi of Casale while still a...
COHEN, ABRAHAM – Assistant rabbi in Tunis; died 1840 at Safed, whither he had made a pilgrimage in his old age. He was a grandson of one of the earliest rabbis in Tunis. His book, "Abraham Yagel" (Abraham Will Rejoice), a work loosely arranged...
COHEN, JUDAH BEN ISAAC BEN MOSES – Provençal philosopher of the middle of the fourteenth century. He was a disciple of Samuel of Marseilles, and a relative of Shelemiah of Lunel, at whose request he composed a commentary on Averroes' middle commentary on the...
COHEN, MOSES BEN ELIEZER – Moralist; lived in Germany, probably at Coblenz, in the second half of the fourteenth century. He was the author of an ethical work entitled "Sefer Ḥasidim" (Book of the Pious), written in 1473 and published by Schriftsetzer,...
COHEN, SAUL – African rabbi; born in Djerba, North Africa, in 1772; died there April, 1848. Although blind and very poor, he was the author of the following publications: "Netib Miẓwoteka" (The Path of Thy Commandments), a work containing...
COHEN-CARLOS, DAVID – A writer resident in Hamburg in the seventeenth century. In 1631 he either translated the Song of Songs into Spanish or transliterated a Ladino translation of it (written in Hebrew letters) into Latin characters. The work is...
COIMBRA – City of Portugal, capital of the province of Beira, in which there was formerly a "Juderia," or Jewish quarter, now called "Corpo de Deus." In April, 1395, the prior of the church in Coimbra and several of the clergy broke into...
COLMAR – Chief town of Upper Alsace, Germany, on the Lauch and the Fecht. At the beginning of the thirteenth century Colmar had a large community of Jews, who enjoyed the favor of the municipal authorities. They occupied a special...
COLOPHON – An inscription or device placed at the end of books, generally with the intention of showing the title, the writer's or the printer's name, the date, and the place of printing. Originally the certificate of the illuminator, it...
COMMERCE – Sale or exchange of goods, generally on a large scale. During the Biblical period the Hebrews in Palestine had what is known as a natural self-sufficing economy (Benzinger, "Arch." p. 213)—that is, each household grew or made...