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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
COMMUNITY, ORGANIZATION OF – Ancient and Medieval: At the beginning of the common era there were Jewish communities at Alexandria, Rome, Salamis, Corinth, Athens, Delos, etc.; at Antioch (in Pisidia), Iconium, Smyrna, Ephesus, and other well-known cities on...
COMTINO, MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER – Turkish Talmudist and scientist; lived at Adrianople and Constantinople; died in the latter city between 1485 and 1490. The earliest date attached to any of his writings is 1425. The form of his family name is doubtful. In...
COMTINO, MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER – Turkish Talmudist and scientist; lived at Adrianople and Constantinople; died in the latter city between 1485 and 1490. The earliest date attached to any of his writings is 1425. The form of his family name is doubtful. In...
CONCIO (V04p204001.jpg), JOSEPH B. GERSHON – Italian author; lived at Asti and Chieri in the beginning of the seventeenth century. He published several Hebrew poems, including: "Ot le-Ṭobah," twenty-two sentences on Talmudic arguments in the order of the Hebrew alphabet,...
CONDOM – County seat in the department of Gers, France. Jews were found there at the beginning of the fourteenth century. In order to pass through this locality, they were heavily taxed. A Jewess, not enceinte, had to pay eight deniers...
CONEGLIANO – A prominent Jewish family of northern Italy. The spelling "Conian," according to Kaufmann, is a misreading of the Hebrew . It takes its name from the town of Conegliano, which at one time belonged to the republic of Venice. A...
CONFISCATION OF HEBREW BOOKS – The first known decree directed against Hebrew literature is one of the emperor Justinian (553) forbidding the Jews to use "what is called by them 'The Second Edition'" (Secunda Editio, δευτέρωσις). Apparently this term was used...
CONFORTE – Hebrew literary historian; born in Salonica about 1618; died about 1685. Conforte came of a family of scholars. His early instructors were R. Israel Ẓebi, R. Judah Girasi, and R. Baruch Angel. As a young man he studied the...
CONQUE, JOSEPH – Nephew of Abraham ben Levi Conque; lived in Hebron, Palestine, during the seventeenth century. He was the teacher of Isaac b. Judah Rapoport. Some of his novellæ and responsa are cited in Ḥayyim Abulafia's various...
CONSTANCE, DISTRICT OF THE LAKE OF – Region in the northeastern part of Switzerland. Of the Jewish communities designated as belonging to the district of the Lake of Constance, those of Ueberlingen, Constance, Schaffhausen, and Diessenhofen deserve special mention,...
CONSTANTINE I. (FLAVIUS VALERIUS AURELIUS CONSTANTINUS) – Roman emperor; born Feb. 27, 274; died May 22, 337; proclaimed emperor by the army in Gaul on the death of his father, Constantius Chlorus (306). He defeated Maxentius, his rival in Italy, in 312; and after routing Licinius,...
CONSTANTINOPLE – Capital of the Ottoman empire, situated on the Bosporus; the "Byzantium" of the ancients. The earliest official document hitherto discovered relating to the Jews of Constantinople dates from 390. A decree of that year (Feb. 23)...
CONVERTS TO CHRISTIANITY, MODERN – The number of post-Mendelssohnian Jews who abandoned their ancestral faith is very large. According to Heman in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc." (x. 114), the number of converts during the nineteenth century exceeded 100,000; Salmon,...
COPONIUS – First procurator of Judea, about 6 C.E. He was, like the procurators that succeeded him, of knightly rank, and "had the power of life and death" (Josephus, "B. J." ii. 8, § 1; "Ant." xviii. 1, § 1). During his administration...
CORBEIL – City in the department of Seine-et-Oise, France. Jews were settled very early in Corbeil, occupying a special quarter, called the "Juderia." It is mentioned in Tosafot to Ket. 12b, Ḥul. 122b, and is probably referred to in a...
CORCOS – A family whose history can be traced back to the end of the thirteenth century, and members of which are still living in Gibraltar and Morocco. The name first appears in Spain; but it was only in the two centuries following the...
CORDOVA – A city in Andalusia, Spain. As early as the eighth century it included Jews among its inhabitants. They lived in a separate quarter or "Juderia," one of the gates of which was called "Bab al-Yahud," now the Almodovar gate. At...
CORDOVA, ISAAC HEZEKIAH B. JACOB – Publisher in the latter part of the seventeenth and the first part of the eighteenth century; son of Jacob b. Moses Raphael de Cordova. After a sojourn in Brazil, he settled in Amsterdam, where, like his brother Abraham, he...
CORDOVA, JOSHUA HEZEKIAH DE – Rabbi and preacher in Amsterdam about the middle of the eighteenth century; author of "Sermam Moral que Neste K. K. de Talmud Torah Pregou em Sabb. Bamidbar, 5 Siwan, 5504", Amsterdam, 1744.Bibliography: Kayserling, Bibl....
COREO DE VIENA – Judæo-Spanish journal printed in rabbinic characters, published at Vienna since 1870. It was for some years under the editorship of Adolfo de Zemlinski.G. M. Fr.
CORFU – Most northerly of the Ionian Islands. The native Jews of Corfu fall into three distinct divisions of different origin (Greek, Spanish, and Apulian) and belonging to different epochs. There was formerly also a fourth division,...
CORFU – Most northerly of the Ionian Islands. The native Jews of Corfu fall into three distinct divisions of different origin (Greek, Spanish, and Apulian) and belonging to different epochs. There was formerly also a fourth division,...
CORONEL, PAUL NUÑEZ – Spanish Orientalist; born at Segovia; died Sept. 30, 1534. Though baptized before the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, he was educated for the rabbinate, became conversant with Hebrew and with Biblical literature, and...
CORREA, ISABELLA (REBECCA) – Spanish poetess of the seventeenth century; born in Spain; lived successively in Brussels, Antwerp, and Amsterdam; wife of the cosmographer D. Nicolas de Olivier y Fullana (Daniel Judah) of Majorca. Isabella Correa was a friend...
CORRIERE ISRAELITICO – Italian monthly magazine devoted to Jewish history and literature; founded at Triest in 1863 by Abrama Vito Morpurgo, who edited it six years, and at his death the editorship devolved upon A. di S. Curiel, Morpurgo's son-in-law,...