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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
DION CASSIUS – Historian; born about 155 at Nicæa in Bithynia; held the highest offices of state in the Roman empire; became consul in 221; died about 240. He wrote an extended work in Greek which dealt with the entire history of Rome, and...
DIONYSUS, FESTIVAL OF – II Maccabees. Historic notices regarding a supposed festival of Dionysus in Judea do not antedate the time of the Maccabees. The general statement in I Maccabees (i. 51, 54, 55) that Antiochus Epiphanes forced the Jews to...
DIOSCORIDES, PEDACIUS – Greek physician of the first century. His "Materia Medica" is mentioned in a Hebrew medical work called "Midrash ha-Refu'ot," attributed to Asaf ben Berechiah, but compiled from Syriac sources in the tenth or eleventh century....
DISABILITIES – Principles of Treatment. —In Europe: J. E. Scherer in his "Die Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden in den Deutsch-Oesterreichischen Ländern" (Leipsic, 1901) has well pointed out that legislation concerning the Jews during the Middle...
DISABILITIES – Principles of Treatment. —In Europe: J. E. Scherer in his "Die Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden in den Deutsch-Oesterreichischen Ländern" (Leipsic, 1901) has well pointed out that legislation concerning the Jews during the Middle...
DISPUTATIONS – Public debates on religious subjects between Jews and non-Jews. Religious differences have at all times induced serious-minded men to exchange their views in order to win opponents over to their own side by appeals to reason....
DLUGOSZ – Biblical commentator and poet of the seventeenth century; born in Grodno, Lithuania. He edited the Prophets and the Hagiographa in the Judæo-German translation of the Bible, "Ha-Maggid," to which he added a commentary on the...
DOLAN BELLAN – French physician; lived at Carcassonne in the fourteenth century. He was a contemporary of the physician Jacob de Lunel, who removed from Carcassonne to Tarascon, where he practised in 1424. Dolan Bellan is probably identical...
DOMINICO IROSOLIMITANO – Talmudist, physician, author, and expurgator of Hebrew books; born in Safed, Palestine, about 1550; died in Italy about 1620. He was educated at the rabbinical college in his native city, studying not only Talmud, but also...
DOMITIAN – Roman emperor 81-96; born in 51; assassinated in 96. In 69, when his father Vespasian was proclaimed emperor, Domitian was the center of the Flavian party in Rome. Succeeding his brother Titus in the government, he provoked the...
DÖNMEH – A sect of crypto-Jews, descendants of the followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi, living to-day mostly in Salonica, European Turkey: the name (Turkish) signifies "apostates." The members call themselves "Ma'aminim" (Believers), "Ḥaberim"...
DONNOLO – Italian physician, and writer on medicine and astrology; born at Oria, in 913; died after 982. When twelve years of age he was made prisoner by the Arabs under the leadership of the Fatimite Abu Ahmad Ja'far ibn 'Ubaid; but was...
DRAGOMAN, EL – Title of a Jewish periodical written in Judæo-Spanish and printed in square Hebrew characters, published in Vienna in 1856.G. M. Fr.
DORBOLO – Rabbi about 1150; he traveled much, and knew Poland, Russia, Bohemia, France, and Germany from his own observations. Some time after 1140 he visited R. Tam in Rameru. In Worms, where he remained for some time, he reports having...
DORIS – First wife of Herod, whom he married about 45 B.C. The names of her parents are not mentioned, probably because they belonged to the masses, for Josephus says expressly ("Ant." xiv. 12, § 1) that Doris came from the people...
DOROTHEUS – Son of Nathanael; one of the embassy sent by the Jews to Rome in 45 C.E., and which induced the emperor Claudius to consent that the garment of the high priest should remain in the hands of the Jews (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 1, §§...
DOSA BEN SAADIA – Son of Saadia Alfayyumi. Dosa was a Talmudic scholar and philosopher, but he did not succeed his father as gaon. A responsum by him has been preserved. According to Abraham ibn Daud's chronicle, he entered into correspondence...
DRAGUIGNAN – Capital of the department of Var, France. There was a Jewish community here in the thirteenth century. The poet Isaac Gorni, who visited it in the beginning of the fourteenth century, complained bitterly of the rich Jews of...
DRAMA, HEBREW – The origin of the Hebrew drama may be traced back to a very early period. The ancient Hebrews, like other nations of antiquity, were wont to express their emotions in the form of dialogue interspersed with songs. Miriam, with a...
DRAMA, THE JEW IN MODERN – General Characteristics. The modern drama, which may be said to date from Christopher Marlowe and Shakespeare, has made liberal use of the Jew as a stage character. From the time of these authors until the present, dramatists...
DRAMA, YIDDISH – Earliest Examples. The dramatic part of Yiddish literature has had a less independent development than any other of its parts, and is consequently poorer, both in quality and in quantity. There are probably less than fifty...
DRESDEN – Capital of the kingdom of Saxony; situated on both banks of the Elbe. The presence of Jews in the city or in its vicinity as early as the beginning of the eleventh century is evidenced by the proceedings against Margrave...
DREUX – Chief town of the arrondissement of the department of Eure-et-Loire, France. From the twelfth century, Jews were living in this locality, where they were considered the property of the Countess of Dreux. In accordance with a...
DRIVER, SAMUEL ROLLES – English Christian Hebraist; born at Southampton Oct. 2, 1846; regius professor of Hebrew (in succession to Pusey), and canon of Christ Church, Oxford, since 1883; member of the Old Testament Revision Company, 1876-84.Together...
DRUSILLA – Daughter of Agrippa I. and Cypros (Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 5, § 4; idem, "B. J." ii. 11, § 6); born in 38. She was only six years old at her father's death (44), and was subjected to the insult of having the portraits of herself...