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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ANTINOË – City in the South of Middle Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile; founded by the emperor Hadrian in the year 122. Jews seem to have come to the city at the same time as did the Greeks, drawn thither by the trade with the port...
ANTWERP – Chief seaport of the kingdom of Belgium; capital of the province bearing the same name.It is impossible to say at what time Jews commenced to settle in the city, as all early data are wanting. In the fourteenth century, however,...
APOLLONIUS – One of the Judeans who, about 130 B.C., went to Rome to make a covenant or league of friendship with the Romans. He was called by Josephus, "the son of Alexander." See John Hyrcanus.Bibliography: Josephus. Ant. xiii. 9, § 2,...
APOLLONIUS – Greek rhetorician and anti-Jewish writer; flourishedin the first century B.C. He is usually, but not always, designated by the name of his father, Molon. He was called by his patronymic mainly to distinguish him from his...
APOLLONIUS OF TYANA – Pythagorean philosopher and necromancer; born about the year 3 B.C.; died, according to some sources, in the thirtyeighth year of his age. In Arabic literature his name is cited in the form "Balinas" or "Belenus," which has...
APOSTASY AND APOSTATES FROM JUDAISM – Terms derived from the Greek ἀποστασία ("defection, revolt") and ἀποστάτης ("rebel in a political sense") (I Macc. xi. 14, xiii. 16; Josephus, "Contra Ap." i. 19, § 4), applied in a religious sense to signify rebellion and...
APOSTOLÉ, APOSTOLI – These two words, while similar in appearance, differ in signification. "Apostolé" was a term given to certain moneys or taxes for Palestine; "Apostoli," the designation of the men or apostles sent forth to collect it. The first...
APOTHEKER, ABRAHAM ASHKENAZI – An apothecary ("aptheker," according to the customary Polish-Jewish syncopated pronunciation) and writer, whose name betokens both his nationality and his profession. He lived at Vladimir in Volhynia in the second half of the...
APOTHEKER, DAVID – Judæo-German writer and printer at Philadelphia, Pa.; born in Ponievyezh, gov. Kovno, Russia, Aug. 28, 1855. In 1868 he went to Vilkomir, where he studied under the guidance of Moses Loeb Lilienblum; in 1877 he became involved...
APPELLANTEN – A German word used to designate the assistants of the chief rabbi of Prague; called also "Oberjuristen"; generally three in number (see Prague).G. S.
APPROBATION – Of Christian Origin. Primarily, a favorable opinion given by rabbis or scholars as recommendation for a book composed wholly or partly in the Hebrew language. The Approbation is not of Jewish origin any more than the censorship....
APT – A small town, not far from Avignon, in the department of Vaucluse, France. In the Middle Ages it was inhabited by Jews, who had a separate quarter assigned to them. About the end of the thirteenth century the poet Isaac ben...
APULIA – Early Settlement of Jews. A district of southern Italy, the limits of which have varied. It is usually regarded as the region bounded by the Frentani on the north, Samnium on the west, Calabria and Lucania on the south, and the...
AQUEDUCTS IN PALESTINE – Palestine, in contradistinction to Egypt, was a land of natural waters rather than of irrigation (Deut. xi. 10, 11), and there can be little doubt that the aqueducts, like the roads of the country, were constructed mainly by the...
AQUILINO, RAFFAELE – Italian apostate who renounced his religion in 1545—eight years before the public burning of the Talmud in Rome (1553)—and who was one of those that denounced Hebrew books, as Steinschneider deduces from a dedicatory passage in...
AQUIN, LOUIS-HENRI D' – Writer and translator of the seventeenth century; son of Philippe D'Aquin. He was converted to Christianity at Aquino in the kingdom of Naples. He left many works relating to the Hebrew language and literature, among which were...
AQUIN, PHILIPPE D' – Hebraist; born at Carpentras about 1578; died at Paris in 1650. Early in life he left his native town and went to Aquino, where he became converted to Christianity and changed his name Mordecai or Mardochée to Philippe d'Aquin....
ARABIA – Peninsula lying between the mainlands of Africa and Asia. It is separated from Africa on the south by the Red Sea and on the north by the Sinaitic peninsula and the strip of land which in modern times has been cut through for...
ARABIAN NIGHTS – Popular name of a collection of tales written in Arabic under the title "Alf Lailat wa Lailah" (One Thousand and One Nights), and rendered familiar to all Europe by Galland's French adaptation of 1703-1717. The
ARABIC LANGUAGE AMONG JEWS, USE OF – The precise period of the first settlement of Jews in Arabia is unknown, and it is therefore impossible to say when the Arabic language was first employed by them. Historical data concerning the Jews of Arabia do not reach...
ARABIC LITERATURE OF THE JEWS – From the time that the Arabs commenced to develop a culture of their own, Jews lived among them and spoke their language. Gradually they also employed the latter in the pursuit of their studies, so that Jewish literature in...
ARABIC POETRY – Pre-Islamic Poetry. The poetic literature of the Arab Jews, to judge from the specimens handed down, must be about as old as Arabic Poetry in general, and in the main is of the same form and stamp. Two epochs may be...
ARABIC POETRY – Pre-Islamic Poetry. The poetic literature of the Arab Jews, to judge from the specimens handed down, must be about as old as Arabic Poetry in general, and in the main is of the same form and stamp. Two epochs may be...
ARAGON – Position Under Jaime I. An independent medieval kingdom, later a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the Iberian peninsula. Its population included Jews as early as the ninth century. In Saragossa (which until 1118...
ARAMAIC LANGUAGE AMONG THE JEWS – Considered Foreign by Ancient Hebrews. Of all Semitic languages the Aramaic is most closely related to the Hebrew, and forms with it, and possibly with the Assyrian, the northern group of Semitic languages. Aramaic,...