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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ELIEZER BEN ISAAC HA-GADOL – German rabbi of the eleventh century. He was a pupil of his cousin R. Simon ha-Gadol of Mayence and of R. Gershom Me'or ha-Golah. David Conforte, relying on the statement in the tosefta to Shab. 54b, says that Eliezer ha-Gadol...
ELIEZER BEN JACOB BELLIN ASHKENAZI – German scholar of the seventeenth century. He prepared a calendar ("'Ibronot," Lublin, 1615) based upon the work of Jacob Marcaria (Riva di Trento, 1561), and improved by the addition of a circular table, which facilitated the...
EUCLID – Greek geometer; flourished in the fourth century B.C. He is mentioned, perhaps for the first time in Hebrew literature, by Rabbi Abraham bar Ḥiyya (d. 1136). Jacob ben Nissim also speaks of .The "Elements." Most of the oldest...
ZADOK – 1. A priest, perhaps the high priest during the reign of David. He was the son of Ahitub (II Sam. viii. 17), but the attempt to trace his genealogy back to Eleazar, the third son of Aaron, as opposed to Abiathar, his...
ELIJAH ALAMANNUS – Spanish physician and diplomat of the fifteenth century, and court physician of the Duke of Bourbon (probably Louis II. of France). Alfonso V., King of Aragon, confided to him a mission to Pope Martin V. He went to Rome in...
ELIJAH B. AZRIEL OF WILNA – Grammarian and author, died after 1748. He wrote: "Ma'aneh Eliyahu," rules for Hebrew reading, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1704; "Miḳra Ḳodesh," rules of Hebrew grammar, Berlin, 1713; "Miktab me-Eliyahu," a commentary on the "Or...
ELIJAH BE'ER (FONTE) B. SHABBETHAI – Italian physician; born in Germany at the end of the fourteenth century. He settled in Italy, where the Senate accorded him citizen's rights in Viterbo, and, in 1405, in Rome; confirmed by Pope Innocent VII. Feb. 6, 1406. He was...
ELIJAH COHEN BEN MOSES BEN NISSIM – Oriental scholar of the second half of the thirteenth century. He translated an Arabic maḳamah, similar to the "Assemblies" of Ḥariri, into Hebrew under the title "Megillat ha-'Ofer." A manuscript copy is in the Bodleian...
ELIJAH OF FERRARA – Italian Talmudist and traveler of the earlier part of the fifteenth century. He was engaged in 1437 as lecturer and teacher in Jerusalem, where he arrived after a stormy voyage, during which he lost his son and grandson. He...
ELIJAH BEN MORDECAI – Payyeṭan of the eleventh century, possibly a native of Italy. Of his poetic productions a "ḳerobah" for the Minḥah of the Day of Atonement ( ) is extant in the German-Polish liturgy. Eliezer ben Nathan wrote a commentary on...
ELIJAH BEN MOSES GERSHON – Eighteenth-century Polish physician, mathematician, and Talmudist; lived at Pinczow, government of Kielce, Russian Poland. He wrote: "Meleket Maḥshebet," in two parts: the first called "'Ir Ḥeshbon," on arithmetic and algebra;...
ELIJAH B. MOSES DE VIDAS – Cabalist at Safed in the sixteenth century; pupil of R. Moses Cordovero. He went to Poland, but returned to Palestine, and died at Hebron. He is the author of "Reshit Ḥokmah," a book on morals divided into five parts...
ELIJAH BEN SAMUEL BEN PARNES OF STEPHANOW – Bulgarian exegete and poet; lived in the second half of the fifteenth century, probably first at Widdin, and later at Constantinople. He maintained a correspondence on scientific subjects with Moses Capsali, Elijah Mizraḥi, and...
ELISEUS – Learned Jew at the court of Murad I. at Brusa and Adrianople during the second half of the fourteenth century. After a time he lost favor with the sultan, and was disgraced and exiled. He is identified by Franz Delitzsch with...
ENCYCLOPEDIA – A work containing information on all subjects, or exhaustive of one subject, arranged in systematic, usually alphabetical, order. Such works were not unknown in the Orient. Among Greek and Syriac Christians they were based upon...
ELVIRA – The ancient Illiberis; capital of the province of the same name, situated on a hill northwest of Granada, Spain, and now in ruins. It was the cradle of Spanish Christianity, and the seat of the celebrated Illiberian Council...
ELYAS OF LONDON – Presbyter of the Jews of England 1237-1257; died in London 1284. He succeeded Aaron of York, represented London at the so-called "Jewish Parliament" at Worcester in 1240, and in 1249 was allowed to have Abraham fil Aaron as his...
EMANU-EL – A weekly journal published in San Francisco, Cal. The first number was issued in May, 1895. Jacob Voorsanger is the editor. It is devoted especially to the interests of Jews and Judaism on the Pacific coast.G. A. M. F....
EMPEREUR, CONSTANTIN L', OF OPPIJCK – Professor of theology and Oriental languages; born at Bremen July, 1591; died at Leyden July 1, 1648. His father, Antonius Cæsar, driven from his native country by religious persecution, went to Holland. Constantin graduated in...
ENOCH, BOOKS OF (Ethiopic and Slavonic) – Apocryphal works attributed to Enoch. From Gen. v. 24 ("Enoch walked with God" and "God took him") a cycle of Jewish legends about Enoch was derived, which, together with apocalyptic speculations naturally ascribed to such a...
EPHESUS – Capital of Ionia, Asia Minor, and later, under the Romans, capital of Asia Proconsularis. Many Jews lived in this large Greek city during the whole of the Hellenistic period. Josephus ("Contra Ap." ii. 4) traces the granting of...
EPHOR – An official in Sparta and in other parts of Greece. Officials called "ephori" were employed among the Jews: (1) in the service of the Temple at Jerusalem (Yoma 9a); (2) at Babylon (Yeb. 45b); (3) in the Byzantine empire, where...
EPHRAIM B. GERSHON – Turkish preacher and physician of the middle of the fifteenth century; lived in Negropont and Constantinople. He was a friend of Mordecai Comtino and Samuel Bueno, for the funeral of whose sister he composed a sermon. His...
EPHRAIM BEN JOSEPH OF CHELM (JAMBROWER) – Polish liturgist; born at Chelm, Poland, at the end of the sixteenth century; died at Wreshna, Poland, about 1650. His father, rabbi at Jambrower, Poland, entrusted his education to David ben Jacob of Szczebrszyn. After residing...
EPHRAIM, VIDAL – Pupil of R. Nissim of Gerona, rabbi in Palma, and teacher of Simeon Duran. He was greatly esteemed by Isaac b. Sheshet, and was noted for his mathematical attainments. He died a martyr to his faith.Bibliography: Isaac b....