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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
EPIC POETRY – Though an abundance of historical reminiscence and a mass of soul-stirring legend lay in the storehouse of Jewish literature, none of it was built into a heroic poem. Religious and secular poets, it is true, often treated of...
EPIGRAMS – Short poems with an unexpected yet pointed ending; much in favor among Jewish writers because of the play of wit which they permitted, though often rather in substance than in form. Such epigrammatic phrasings of ideas were used...
EPIPHANIUS – Bishop of Constantia, Cyprus; born at Bezanduke near Eleutheropolis, Palestine, between 310 and 320 (according to Bartolocci, in 288); died at sea in 403. Epiphanius is supposed to have been born of Jewish parents and to have...
ERFURT – Earliest Mention. Chief town of the district of the same name in Prussian Saxony, situated on the Gera. If the dates on the tombstones found in Erfurt are genuine, there existed in that city an organized Jewish community in the...
ESCALONA – City of Castile; said to have been named after Ascalon in Palestine. Jews were living there at a very early date. The fuero or charter granted to the city in 1130 by D. Alfonso VII. decreed that neither a Jew nor a Moor might...
ESDRAS, BOOKS OF – Apocryphal writings ascribed to Ezra.I Esdras: Name and Versions. Plain of Esdraelon, with Mount Tabor in the Distance.(From a photograph by Bonfils.)The apocryphal Book of Ezra, or, better, the "Greek Ezra" (Esdræ Græcus), is...
ESPERIAL, SAMUEL – Physician of Cordova, Spain. He was the author of a treatise on surgery written for David of Jaen in Spanish, but with Hebrew characters (Vatican MS. No. 372).Bibliography: Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. i., No. 2047; Steinschneider, Jewish...
ESTRUMBA – Oriental Jewish family which has produced several rabbinical authors; takes its name from "Strumnitza" in Macedonia.Daniel Estrumsa: Rabbi and Talmudist; died at Salonica (?) in 1654. A pupil of Rabbi Mordecai Ḳala'i, he became...
ETAMPES – Capital of the arrondissement of the department of Seine-et-Oise, France. The origin of the Jewish community of Etampes seems to go back to the twelfth century. King Louis VII. appointed a provost in this city, who alone had the...
ETHNARCH – In the Greco-Roman world, one that stood at the head of any community, though not an independent ruler. The Hebrew word "rosh" ( ), especially in the Biblical works of the post-exilic time, had perhaps a meaning related to...
ETOILE – Town in the ancient province of Dauphineá, France. It must not be confounded with Estella (Latin, Stella), Spain. In the fourteenth century there were living in Dijon Jews who had originally come from "Estoile" (Simmonet, "Juifs...
EUPHEMISM – A figure of speech by which a softened, indirect expression is substituted for a word or phrase offensive to delicate ears though more accurately expressive of what is meant. Instances of euphemisms are found in the Bible; and...
EUPOLEMUS – Son of John, son of Accos; envoy of Judas Maccabeus to the Romans. To secure himself against the Syrians Judas sent Eupolemus with Jason, son of Eleazar, to win the Romans as friends and allies. The Romans granted his request,...
EUROPE – I Early Period (163 B. C. to 500 C.E.): The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure. There is documentary evidence only for the fact that in 163 B.C. Eupolemus, son of John, and Jason, son of Eleazar, went to Rome as...
EVARISTUS – The fifth pope; consecrated about 100; died about 109. The breviary of Pope Pius V. reserves Oct. 26 to the memory of "Evaristus Græcus ex Judæo parte Trajano Imperatore Pontificatum gessit." From this it would follow that this...
EVREUX – Capital of the department of Eure, France. In the Middle Ages it was one of the centers of Jewish learning, and its scholars are quoted in the Tosafot on Beẓah 14b, 20b, 24b; on Ḳiddushin 27b, 39a et passim; on Soṭah 22a et...
EXILARCH – Title given to the head of the Babylonian Jews, who, from the time of the Babylonian exile, were designated by the term "golah" (see Jer. xxviii. 6, xxix. 1; Ezek. passim) or "galut" (Jer. xxix. 22). The chief of the golah or...
EZEKIAS – High priest mentioned by Josephus, who relates that among those who accompanied Ptolemy to Egypt after the battle of Gaza (320 B.C.) was Ezekias, then sixty-six years of age, a man skilled in oratory and in affairs of...
EZOBI, ELIEZER BEN ḤANAN – Provençal poet; lived at Béziers in the thirteenth century. He was the brother of Joseph EZOBI, and a contemporary of Abraham Bedersi, with whom he exchanged poems. His productions include a didactic poem of thirty strophes on...
EZOBI, JOSEPH BEN ḤANAN BEN NATHAN – Liturgical poet; lived at Perpignan in the thirteenth century. He was the author of thefollowing: (1) three liturgical poems, the first on the Feast of Pentecost, the second (found in the Avignon ritual), on the ten martyrs...
FANO – Name of an Italian family, members of which have been prominent as scholars since the sixteenth century. Among them the following may be mentioned:Abraham ben Moses da Fano: Italian scholar of the fifteenth (?) century; author...
FADUS CUSPIUS – Procurator of Judea after the death of Agrippa I. Appointed by Emperor Claudius in 44 C.E., he went to Palestine in the same year, and found the inhabitants of Peræa engaged in open hostilities against those of Philadelphia on...
FAENZA – City in the province of Ravenna, and the family seat of the Finzi according to a tradition of the family; Maẓliaḥ (Felice) Finzi lived there as early as 1450. The physician Lazarus Hebræus, prominent in the fifteenth century on...
FALAISE – Capital of the arrondissement of the department of Calvados, in Normandy, France, and till 1206 under English rule. It seems to have had a considerable Jewish community in the Middle Ages. Jacob and Morellus of "Falesia" were...
FALAQUERA (PALQUERA), SHEM-ṬOB BEN JOSEPH – Spanish philosopher and poet: born 1225; died after 1290. He was well versed in Arabic and Greek philosophy, and had a fine critical sense. Falaquera unfortunately gives no informationconcerning his own personality. He was the...