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Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; New York City.

Contributions:
ARANDA, PEDRO DE – Bishop of Calahorra and president of the council of Castile in the latter part of the fifteenth century; was a victim of the Marano persecutions. His father, Gonzalo Alonzo, who was one of the Jews that embraced Christianity in...
ARAUXO, ABRAHAM GOMEZ DE – Lived in the seventeenth century. He was a member of a poetical academy in Amsterdam, Holland, in 1682, a good mathematician, and aroused the admiration of his associates by his clever solution of riddles.G. M. K....
ARAUXO, DANIEL – Physician. Lived in the seventeenth century in the city of Amsterdam. In the year 1655 he composed an elegy on the martyr Isaac de Almeyda Bernal.G. M. K.
ARBUES, PEDRO – Spanish canon and inquisitor; called by certain Jews "the creature and darling of Torquemada"; born about 1441 at Epila, Aragon (hence sometimes styled "master of Epila"); died Sept. 17, 1485. He was appointed canon of Saragossa...
ARCADIUS – Byzantine emperor from 395 to 408. He was too weak a ruler to be able to withstand the influence exerted by his court favorites upon his policy toward the Jews. Such privileges as were accorded them were due to his privy...
ARCHA – Technical name in old English Treasury documents for the repository in which chirographs and other deeds were preserved. By the "Ordinances of the Jewry" in 1194 it was arranged that "all deeds, pledges, mortgages, lands,...
ARCHELAUS – Son of Herod I.; king of Judea; born about 21 B.C., his mother being the Samaritan Malthace. At the age of fourteen he was sent to Rome for education, and, after a stay of two or three years, returned home with his brothers...
ARCHEVOLTI, SAMUEL BEN ELHANAN ISAAC – Italian grammarian, and poet of the sixteenth century. Many of his piyyuṭim were embodied in the Italian liturgy, notably his "Song on Circumcision." He was an excellent Talmudist, and, when quite young, reedited or rather...
ARCHIMEDES – The greatest mathematician of antiquity; born in Syracuse about 287 B.C. His influence on Jewish literature was not extensive. Only two of his works have come down to us in a Hebrew translation. Kalonymusben Kalonymus (after...
ARCHIVES ISRAÉLITES – A French Jewish review, founded in 1840 by Samuel Cahen, author of a French translation of the Hebrew Bible. The first number appeared in January, 1840, as an octavo pamphlet of sixty-four pages, entitled, "Archives...
ARCHON – The title of a member of the governing body in the independent Jewish communities throughout the Roman empire, as in Alexandria, Antioch, Berenice in Cyrenaica, Rome, Tlos in Lycia, and other cities. In Alexandria, where Emperor...
ARDIT – The name of a family that emigrated from Aragon to Turkey, where their descendants still live. The following members are known:1. Abraham Ardit: Lived in 1483 at Barcelona.2. Ephraim Ardit: Lived in Smyrna; wrote, under the...
ARDOTIAL (ANDRUTIL) SHEM-ṬOB BEN ISAAC – Spanish poet; flourished at Soria in the beginning of the fourteenth century. The name has been wrongly transcribed as Androtil, Adrutil, Ardothiel. Steinschneider connects the name with Ardot; the ending "ial" having either a...
AREPOL, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC BEN YOM-ṬOB – Commentator on the Bible, lived in Safed and Salonica in the sixteenth century. He is author of the following books: "Imrot Eloah" (God's Sayings), homilies on the Pentateuch (Venice); "Wa'ad la-Ḥakamim" (The Assembly of the...
ARETAS – Nabatæan king; reigned from 9 B.C. to 40 of the common era. His full title, as given in the inscriptions, was "Aretas, King of the Nabatæans, Friend of his People." Being the most powerful neighbor of Judea, he frequently took...
ARIAS, JOSEPH ẒEMAḤ (SAMEH) – Marano litterateur; flourished in the latter part of the seventeenth century. He belonged to the literary coterie of Joseph Penso, the dramatist, and held a high commission in the Spanish army at Brussels.He attained the rank of...
ARIAS MONTANUS (BENEDICTUS) – Spanish priest and Orientalist; born in 1527 at Freseenal, Estremadura; died 1598 at Seville. Philip II. entrusted him with the editing of the Polyglot Bible which was printed in Antwerp (1568-1572) under the title, "Biblia...
ARISTOBULUS I – King of Judea, eldest son of John Hyrcanus; born about 140 B.C.; died 104. He succeeded his father in the office of high priest, while his mother (or, according to Wellhausen, his stepmother) was, by the will of his father, to...
ARISTOBULUS II. – Supports the Sadducees. King of Judea; born about 100 B.C.; died 49 B.C. He was the youngest son of Alexander Jannæus, whose political and religious predilections he inherited, while his elder brother, Hyrcanus II., seems to...
ARISTOBULUS III. – Last scion of the Hasmo nean royal house; brother of Mariamne and paternal grandson of Aristobulus II. He was a favorite of the people on account of his noble descent and handsome presence, and thus became an object of fear to...
ARISTOBULUS – Youngest brother of Agrippa I.; son of Herod's son Aristobulus; flourished during the first half of the first century. He was left an infant, together with his two brothers, Agrippa and Herod, when his father was executed (7...
ARISTOBULUS – Son of Herod the Great and Mariamne the Hasmonean; born about 35 B.C.; died 7 B.C. Both he and his elder brother Alexander, by reason of their Hasmonean origin, were educated by Herod as successors to his throne; and for that...
ARISTOBULUS OF PANEAS – Alexandrian Peripatetic philosopher; lived in the third or second century B.C. The period of his life is doubtful, Anatolius (270) placing him in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (third century B.C.), Gercke in the time of...
ARITHMETIC – The art of reckoning. This must have been familiar to the ancient Hebrews. The sacred books mention large amounts, showing that the people were acquainted with the art of computation. Expressions are found even for fractions...
ARLES – City of France, in the department of Bouches du Rhône; ancient capital of Provence. The date of the settlement of the Jews in Arles is lost in antiquity. According to a legend, the emperor Vespasian placed Jews on three vessels,...